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This paper examines how the United States, South Korea, China, and the European Union used green investments after the global financial crisis to help their economies recover, create jobs, and build up new industries. The lessons from 2008–2009 can help inform today’s policymakers designing economic stimulus packages in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


The Tool aims to inform bus operators and city officials of the costs, emissions, and social benefits associated with bus fleets using different fuel types. The Tool’s outputs can help bus operators make the most cost-efficient decisions when making a clean bus upgrade, allow transit agencies to validate information provided by bus operators, and inform city officials of the social benefits of a low-carbon transit fleet.


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