Momentum for reaching net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, or "net zero," has increased in recent years, with many countries indicating their aspiration to reach net zero at the national level by midcentury. Some countries are also committing to making the transition justly—in ways that improve the lives and livelihoods of those impacted during the transition. Yet challenges remain around the credibility of net-zero targets and their implementation pathways.

Although no country has found the perfect approach for reaching net-zero emissions, many have begun making foundational decisions and establishing governance measures, stakeholder engagement processes, sectoral policy interventions, and financing and investments required to move toward net-zero emissions. Recognizing that many challenges will need to be overcome in transitioning justly to net-zero emissions, this paper presents a "Framework for Net-Zero Climate Action." The framework's outcomes, enabling action areas, and actions represent key features of a holistic approach for reaching net-zero emissions. The paper also illustrates how countries are already taking actions within the framework, providing lessons from which other countries can learn.

Five detailed case studies are also presented to demonstrate how countries are currently taking climate action to meet their net-zero targets. These case studies show how countries have been able to overcome challenges and make significant shifts toward realizing their net-zero targets through specific actions within the framework’s enabling action areas.