The Project for Advancing Climate Transparency (PACT) consortium supports the design and development of robust and effective transparency and accountability rules and processes for the Paris Agreement on climate change. This working paper examines the technical expert review and facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress by drawing on lessons from previous experiences and presenting options for consideration in the modalities, procedures, and guidelines that will govern the process.

Key Findings

  • The review process is one of the key elements of the enhanced transparency framework under the Paris Agreement. The review process plays an essential role in helping countries fulfill their commitments: improving data over time, informing climate change policymaking at national and international levels, mobilizing and building capacity, and fostering cooperation.
  • Many aspects of the existing review process have worked well, which provides strong foundations for the enhanced review system. However, the current regime also suffers from unclear guidance, inefficiencies, and delays, which could be exacerbated by the expected increase in the number and frequency of reviews. These shortcomings need to be addressed.
  • The enhanced review process can be designed to facilitate a more robust regime and provide relevant and timely inputs for the mechanisms created to ramp up ambition, facilitate implementation, and promote compliance.
  • The paper evaluates experiences from the past 20 years of review processes within and outside the UNFCCC and presents options for designing clearer, more sustainable, and cost-effective procedures and guidelines while providing flexibility for those developing countries that need it.
  • The paper highlights which existing review procedures should be kept or adjusted and whether new elements and approaches should be considered.