Since the early 1990s, countries have been working together under the United Nations to develop a framework for international action on climate change. This cooperation has led to rules, principles, institutions, and procedures to guide and support global action. Most notably, countries have adopted the UNFCCC and have focused on its implementation, including through two operational agreements: the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. Since Parties to the UNFCCC adopted the Paris Agreement in 2015, they have focused significant attention to finalizing and negotiating the rules, procedures, modalities, and operational guidance that govern implementation of the agreement. Parties are turning their attention to the action and support that will be needed to fully implement the Paris Agreement’s obligations and its Rulebook.

The objective of the paper is to provide recommendations for strengthening the architecture and implementation of the Paris Agreement. The paper does so by drawing on experiences under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, including the existing transparency framework, Talanoa Dialogue, and the Kyoto Protocol’s compliance committee, and by considering the unique impact that science and the work of the IPCC, equity, and leadership have each had on implementation efforts.