This report provides a detailed assessment of the status of and threats to the world's coral reefs. It evaluates threats to coral reefs from a wide range of human activities, and includes an assessment of climate-related threats to reefs. It also contains a global assessment of the vulnerability of nations and territories to coral reef degradation.

Executive Summary


Reefs at Risk Revisited is a high-resolution update of the original global analysis, Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World’s Coral Reefs. Reefs at Risk Revisited uses a global map of coral reefs at 500-m resolution, which is 64 times more detailed than the 4-km resolution map used in the 1998 analysis, and benefits from improvements in many global data sets used to evaluate threats to reefs (most threat data are at 1 km resolution, which is 16 times more detailed than those used in the 1998 analysis).

Key Findings

PDF of Key Findings

Like the original Reefs at Risk, this study evaluates threats to coral reefs from a wide range of human activities. For the first time, it also includes an assessment of climate-related threats to reefs. In addition, Reefs at Risk Revisited includes a global assessment of the vulnerability of nations and territories to coral reef degradation, based on their dependence on coral reefs and their capacity to adapt.

WRI led the Reefs at Risk Revisited analysis in collaboration with a broad partnership of more than 25 research, conservation, and educational organizations. Partners have provided data, offered guidance on the analytical approach, contributed to the report, and served as critical reviewers of the maps and findings.

Selected Media

GIS Data Sets

KML Data Sets

Use these files in Google Earth and other map applications that support KML.

Local & Global Threats in 2050 (3.1 Mb)

Local & Global Threats in 2030 (3.1 Mb)

Local Threats: Present (3.1 Mb)

Technical Documentation:

Technical Notes (PDF, 338 Kb)

Data & Resources DVD

A DVD companion to the Reefs at Risk Revisited report is available upon request. To order a copy, please email, and include a brief description of how you plan to apply the data. The DVD contains:

  • A comprehensive set of GIS data (raw input data and model results);
  • KML files (for viewing on Google Earth);
  • PDF of the Reefs at Risk Revisited report;
  • Technical notes;
  • A complete set of maps in jpeg format;
  • Summary video; and
  • Links to additional resources.

Fact Sheets

Global (PDF, 994 Kb)

Atlantic (PDF, 1.1 Mb)

Australia (PDF, 1.0 Mb)

Indian Ocean (PDF, 1.1 Mb)

Middle East (PDF, 1.0 Mb)

Pacific (PDF, 1.1 Mb)

Southeast Asia (PDF, 1.1 Mb)


Map Poster: Reefs at Risk: Human Pressure on the World’s Coral Reefs

Movie Poster: Coral Reefs: Polyps in Peril


Reefs at Risk Revisited is a project of the World Resources Institute (WRI), developed and implemented in close collaboration with:

  • The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
  • WorldFish Center
  • International Coral Reef Action Network (ICRAN)
  • United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC)
  • Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN)

Many other government agencies, international organizations, research institutions, universities, non-governmental organizations and initiatives provided scientific guidance, contributed data, and reviewed results, including:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA)
  • Coastal Oceans Research and Development in the Indian Ocean (CORDIO)
  • Conservation International (CI)
  • Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL)
  • Healthy Reefs for Healthy People
  • International Society for Reef Studies (ISRS)
  • International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
  • L’Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD)
  • National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS)
  • Oceana
  • Planetary Coral Reef Foundation
  • Project AWARE Foundation
  • Reef Check
  • Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF)
  • SeaWeb
  • Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)
  • Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)
  • U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  • U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • University of South Florida (USF)
  • University of the South Pacific (USP)
  • Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)
  • World Wildlife Fund (WWF)

Financial Support

  • The Chino Cienega Foundation
  • The David and Lucile Packard Foundation
  • The Henry Foundation
  • International Coral Reef Initiative
  • National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
  • Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • The Ocean Foundation
  • Roy Disney Family Foundation
  • The Tiffany & Co. Foundation
  • U.S. Department of the Interior
  • U.S. Department of State


  1. Egypt: Coral Survival under Extreme Conditions
  2. Persian Gulf: The Cost of Coastal Development to Reefs (Available in full report.)
  3. Tanzania: Deadly Dynamite Fishing Resurfaces (Available in full report.)
  4. Chagos Archipelago: A Case Study in Rapid Reef Recovery (Available in full report.)
  5. Indonesia: A New Hope for Seribu Island’s Reefs
  6. Indonesia: People Protect Livelihoods and Reefs in Wakatobi National Park (Available in full report.)
  7. Philippines: Social Programs Reduce Pressure on Culion Island’s Reefs (Available in full report.)
  8. Australia: Remaining Risks to the Great Barrier Reef (Available in full report.)
  9. Palau: Communities Manage Watersheds and Protect Reefs (Available in full report.)
  10. Guam: Military Development Threatens Reefs (Available in full report.)
  11. Papua New Guinea: Marine Protection Designed for Reef Resilience in Kimbe Bay (Available in full report.)
  12. New Caledonia: Reef Transplantation Compensates for Habitat Loss in Prony Bay (Available in full report.)
  13. Fiji: Local Management Helps Reefs at the Namena Marine Reserve (Available in full report.)
  14. American Samoa: Shipwreck at Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (Available in full report.)
  15. Line Islands: a Gradient of Human Impact on Reefs (Available in full report.)
  16. Costa Rica: Reef Life after Bleaching
  17. Mesoamerican Reef: Low Stress Leads to Resilience (Available in full report.)
  18. Florida: Marine Management Reduces Boat Groundings (Available in full report.)
  19. Dominican Republic: Protecting Biodiversity, Securing Livelihoods at La Caleta National Marine Park
  20. Tobago: A Sustainable Future for Buccoo Reef
  21. Brazil: Coral Diseases Endanger Reefs (Available in full report.)
  22. Atlantic and Caribbean: Lionfish Invasion Threatens Reefs