This report is a map-based analysis of threats to coral reefs around the world, with particular focus on the countries of the Coral Triangle—Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Solomon Islands, and Timor-Leste. It examines present pressures on coral reefs, including overfishing and destructive fishing, coastal development, and pollution from land and sea, as well as projected threats from climate-related ocean warming and acidification. It also studies the social and economic vulnerability of countries to reef loss and examines existing management efforts.
The World Resources Institute produced the report in close collaboration with the USAID-funded Coral Triangle Support Partnership (CTSP). Reefs at Risk Revisited in the Coral Triangle was adapted from WRI’s 2011 global analysis of threats to coral reefs, Reefs at Risk Revisited, and supplemented with more recent and detailed data for the Coral Triangle region.
Threats to coral reefs in the Coral Triangle are much higher than the global average. More than 85 percent of reefs within the Coral Triangle Region are currently threatened by local stressors (such as overfishing, pollution, and coastal development), which is substantially higher than the global average of 60 percent. Nearly 45 percent are at high or very high threat levels. When the influence of recent thermal stress and coral bleaching is combined with these local threats, the percent of reefs rated as threatened increases to more than 90 percent, which is substantially greater than the global average of 75 percent.
Reefs at Risk Revisited in the Coral Triangle studies current and future threats to the Coral Triangle's reefs, evaluates social and economic vulnerability to reef degradation and loss throughout the six countries, examines reef management initiatives, and identifies solutions to help safeguard reefs.
The report is available in English and Bahasa Indonesian.
Reefs at Risk Revisited in the Coral Triangle was developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI) in close collaboration with the USAID-funded Coral Triangle Support Partnership (CTSP).
This report was adapted from WRI’s 2011 global analysis of threats to coral reefs, Reefs at Risk Revisited, produced in partnership with The Nature Conservancy (TNC), the WorldFish Center, the International Coral Reef Action Network (ICRAN), the United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), and the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN).
Many other government agencies, international organizations, research institutions, universities, non-governmental organizations and initiatives provided scientific guidance, contributed data, and reviewed results for these reports, including:
Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA)
Coastal Conservation and Education Foundation (CCEF)
Coastal Oceans Research and Development in the Indian Ocean (CORDIO)
Conservation International (CI)
Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL)
Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI-CFF)
Healthy Reefs for Healthy People
International Society for Reef Studies (ISRS)
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
L’Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)
National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS)
Planetary Coral Reef Foundation
Project AWARE Foundation
Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF)
Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)
U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
University of South Florida (USF)
University of the South Pacific (USP)
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)
World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
Financial Support for Reefs at Risk Revisited in the Coral Triangle was provided by: