Ensuring that public funds support climate goals is key to successfully funding an NDC. For many countries, domestic financial flows are the largest source of finance for achieving their climate goals.  

Relevant financing flows include a country’s revenue, expenditures and debt load. They can include anything that flows through government and/or state-owned enterprises and national development banks. The following instruments and policies put the might of public finance and its massive throughput behind climate action. They ensure that public expenditures align with climate solutions, and that NDCs are not undermined in other parts of the budget at all levels of government.