This technical notes details the methodology behind the Electric Vehicles on the Grid Simulator. This tool is intended to help individual building energy managers, facility owners, distribution service operators, charging point operators, and fleet operators. This model-based simulator enables users to evaluate the potential electric vehicle (EV) load impacts on the low-voltage distribution grid at specific sites and plan for future capacity upgrades. Additionally, the tool can be used to quantify the effects of different vehicle-grid integration technologies to alleviate the peak capacity stress.
The Monte Carlo simulation and linear programming are deployed to predict the EV charging and discharging load profiles and load impacts at specific sites, with the consideration of future EV penetration, EV charging and traveling behaviors, availability of charging facility availability, and site loads. Based on existing studies conducted in the United States, Europe, and China, the default EV charging and traveling behaviors are predefined for a quick assessment. Users are encouraged to modify the model inputs for the specific site to derive more accurate and contextualized results. This tool can also help manage an EV fleet’s smart charging and discharging at the low-voltage distribution grid.