Renewable natural gas (RNG), also known as biomethane or upgraded biogas, is growing in prominence as a strategy to help achieve state climate, waste management, and other sustainability goals. However, questions remain on whether projects can be easily deployed, the extent to which they can contribute to ambitious climate and environmental goals, and the trade-offs of supporting RNG versus alternative decarbonization strategies. This paper provides comprehensive guidance for policymakers on evaluating RNG resource potential, greenhouse gas emissions impacts, and deployment and policy options at the state level.