Ocean-based climate action can play an important role in achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement. Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) are one of the main mechanisms under the Paris Agreement for countries to communicate their national climate strategies. This working paper analyzes how ocean-based climate actions are included in new and updated nationally determined contributions (NDCs) from island and coastal countries and what this means for implementation over the next five years. Based on an analysis of 106 new and updated NDCs, 77 (73 percent) include at least one target, policy, or measure aimed at ocean-based climate actions.


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