How countries’ nationally determined contributions (NDCs) are implemented and improved upon over time will determine whether the long-term temperature goal of the Paris Agreement is achieved.

Each country will prepare for and implement its NDC in different ways, based on the nature of its NDC, how the NDC was first developed, and its national circumstances.

Nevertheless, this report identifies some common features of the NDC implementation process:

  • Preparing for NDC implementation—which may result in the preparation of an NDC implementation plan—includes several key steps, such as aligning NDC implementation and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG); taking stock of the NDC; reviewing the analysis underpinning the NDC; prioritizing policies and measures; assessing capacities, institutions, and regulatory frameworks required for NDC implementation; and engaging stakeholders.
  • Preparing for NDC implementation will also require costing of implementation options, formulating strategies to finance NDCs, and scaling up climate finance in a more integrated and sustainable way.
  • Central to NDC implementation is monitoring and reporting of NDC progress and achievement, which can inform any adjustments to implementation plans.

Lastly, and of critical importance, successful NDC implementation can help countries prepare for their next NDC submission and increase ambition to achieve the Paris Agreement’s goals.