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This report discusses women’s tenure security in collectively held lands and provides promising practices for ensuring women not only have legally and socially recognized rights in collectively held land but also are empowered to exercise their rights. The report combines legal analysis and literature review with in-depth case studies of five indigenous and customary communities – in Mexico, Jordan, Nepal, Indonesia, and Cameroon – who have achieved more gender-equitable collective land tenure systems.


This working paper is among the first to address the long-term climate strategy in Indonesia as well as make suggestions on how the strategy could be incorporated into the ongoing process. It identifies the benefits from producing a long-term climate strategy as well as the potential risks from failing to do so for Indonesia. This paper discusses the current progress of Indonesia’s long-term climate strategy, gaps in the process and enabling factors to move forward with an effective LTS for the country.


This case study describes the history of Surabaya, Indonesia’s inclusive housing policy and how the Kampung Improvement Program became a model for in situ slum upgrading efforts both nationwide and internationally. The paper suggests certain actions that the city can take to maintain its legacy of inclusive housing policy, including prioritizing in situ, incremental upgrading of informal settlements; partnering with NGOs and universities to facilitate innovation; and improving the city’s transportation network and limiting high-end development that displaces residents.


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