India is currently the world’s third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs) after China and the United States and is set to experience continued growth in its population, economy, and energy consumption. Exploring low-carbon development pathways for India is therefore crucial for achieving the goal of global decarbonization. India has pledged to reduce the emission intensity of its gross domestic product (GDP) by 33–35 per cent relative to 2005 levels by 2030 through its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), among other related targets for the renewable energy and forestry sectors. Further, countries, including India, are expected to respond to the invitation of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the Paris Agreement to communicate new or updated NDCs with enhanced ambition and long-term low-GHG development strategies for 2050.

To design effective policy packages to support the planning and achievement of such climate targets, policymakers need to identify policies that can reduce GHG emissions in a timely and cost-effective manner, while meeting development-related and other national objectives. The India Energy Policy Simulator (India EPS), an open-source, system dynamics model, can enable an integrated quantitative assessment of different cross-sectoral climate policy packages for India through 2050 and their implications for key variables of interest such as emissions, GDP, and jobs. The tool was developed by Energy Innovation LLC and adapted for India in partnership with World Resources Institute. It is available for open access through a Web interface as well as a downloadable application.

This technical note describes the structure, input data sources, assumptions, and limitations of the India EPS, as well as the setup and key results of its reference scenario, referred to as the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario in the model. It is intended as an update to the first technical note on the India EPS (Mangan et al. 2019) and accounts for the changes incorporated into the model since the first version.

The India EPS web interface can be accessed at

The latest version of the model along with the complete input data set can be downloaded at