If reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is to work effectively, developing countries will need support to build the capacities required for enforcing their own laws and regulations. At present, timber production that violates the developing country’s own laws both acts as a barrier to REDD and costs these countries billions of dollars per year. This paper examines the approach taken by Parties to the challenge of illegally produced timber, and proposes measures to support developing countries in tackling this problem that could form part of the climate framework to be negotiated in Copenhagen.