Current commitments in nationally determined contributions (NDCs) are not sufficient to limit global temperature rise to 1.5oC. The Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirms that significantly strengthened mitigation efforts are essential. The 48 of member countries of the Climate Vulnerable Forum (CVF) are some of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. They are also some of the most ambitious – establishing global leadership in committing to 100% renewable energy by 2050 and calling on all countries to make good on their commitment to the goals of the Paris Agreement and submitting revised NDCs in 2020. To support the CVF in exploring options to enhance their own NDCs in an effort to catalyze larger emitters to do the same, this paper identifies a range of mitigation and adaptation options that CVF member countries could pursue when submitting new or updated NDCs by 2020. It highlights actions in key sectors (energy, transport, forestry, food, and agriculture) and specific ways in which CVF countries can help drive the transition to a low-carbon and climate-resilient pathway while supporting sustainable development objectives including access to energy, health, and transport; sustainable land use; and food security.