The Paris Agreement established an expert-based committee “to facilitate implementation of and promote compliance” with the various provisions of the Agreement. Ultimately, the committee can serve to enhance implementation of the Paris Agreement by assisting countries in pursuing their commitments, by considering systemic issues impacting multiple countries, and by addressing countries’ individual failures to fulfill obligations in submitting NDCs or other national reports.

Read an overview below or our deep dive on Facilitating Implementation and Promoting Compliance.

Key Rulebook Decisions from COP24

In negotiations on the Rulebook, countries needed to decide when and how cases will be referred to the committee, what actions the committee can take and whether the committee can address issues or challenges that face multiple countries.

The adopted Rulebook provides that cases can come to the committee in three circumstances: if the country requests assistance from the committee, if the country fails to submit a required document under the Paris Agreement, or if the country does not participate in processes established by the Agreement’s transparency system. In the case of documents, the committee will become involved if a country does not communicate or maintain an NDC, submit a biennial transparency report or submit a biennial communication of projected finance information. The committee may also become engaged — only if the country agrees — if there are “significant and persistent inconsistencies” with the information countries provide in their transparency reports as compared to the requirements.

The Rulebook also outlines a list of actions the committee may take, including:

  1. Holding a dialogue with the country to identify challenges, make recommendations and share information;
  2. Assisting the country in engaging appropriate finance, technology and capacity-building support systems to identify challenges and recommend solutions;
  3. Recommending development of an action plan and assisting in the development of the plan, if requested; and
  4. Issuing findings of fact, regarding the country’s referral.

The committee may also identify systemic issues faced by a number of countries that affect the implementation of and compliance with the Paris Agreement. The committee will prepare a report on these issues and may make recommendations, where appropriate. The figure below summarizes the scope of the committee’s work, including the ways in which the committee becomes engaged and the actions the committee may take.

Figure showing triggers for compliance and compliance measures.

Remaining Negotiating Mandates

Countries completed the guidelines for the expert-based committee, but the Rulebook guidelines left it to the members of the committee to develop "rules of procedure" for the committee. Countries will review the guidelines for the committee in 2024.


Read Deeper Dive on Compliance