This page lists the references used to identify coastal hypoxic and eutrophic areas that are featured in the interactive map, as well as works cited in the "About Eutrophication" section of this website.

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Abadie, S.W. and M.A. Poirrier. 2000. "Increased density of large Rangia clams in Lake Pontchartrain after the cessation of shell dredging." Journal of Shellfish Research 19: 481-485.

Abe, J., J. Wellens-Mensah, O.S. Diallo, and C. Mbuyil Wa Mpoyi. 2003. Global International Waters Assessment Guinea Current, GIWA Regional assessment 42. University of Kalmar on behalf of United Nations Environment Programme.

Abril, G., H. Etcheber, P.L. Hir, P. Bassoullet, B. Boutier, and M. Frankignoulle. 1999. "Oxic/anoxic oscillations and organic carbon mineralization in an estuarine maximum turbidity zone (The Gironde, France)." Limnology and Oceanography 44: 1304-1315.

Abril, G, H. Etcheber, B. Delille, M. Frankignoulle, and A.V. Borges. 2003. "Carbonate dissolution in the turbid and eutrophic Loire estuary." Marine Ecology Progress Series 259: 129-138.

Agenzia Regionale Prevenzione e Ambiente dell’ Emilia-Romagna (ARPA) – Struttura Oceanografica Daphne. 2005. “Eutrofizzazione Delle Acque Costiere dell'Emilia-Romagna / Rapporto 2005 (In Italian).”

Ærtebjerg, G., J.H. Andersen, and O.S. Hansen. 2003. Nutrients and Eutrophication in Danish Marine Waters: A Challenge for Science and Management. Ministry of the Environment Department of Marine Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute.

Ahern, K.S, C.R. Ahern, and J.W. Udy. 2007. “Nutrient additions generate prolific growth of Lyngbya majuscule (cyanobacteria) in field and bioassay experiments.” Harmful Algae 6: 134-151.

Ahern, K.S, C.R. Ahern, and J.W. Udy. 2008. “In situ field experiment shows Lyngbya majuscule (cyanobacterium) growth stimulated by added iron, phosphorus and nitrogen.” Harmful Algae 7: 389-404.

Ahmed, M.H., N. Donia, and M.A. Fahmy. 2006. "Eutrophication assessment of Lake Manzala, Egypt using geographical information systems (GIS) techniques." Journal of Hydroinformatics 8: 101-109.

Aleksandrov, S.V. 2010. “Biological production and eutrophication of Baltic Sea estuarine ecosystems: The Curonian and Vistula Lagoons.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 61: 205-210.

Allen, J.R., D.J. Slinn, T.M. Shammon, R.G. Hartnoll and S.J. Hawkins. 1998. "Evidence for eutrophication of the Irish Sea over four decades." Limnology and Oceanography 43: 1970-1974.

Alo, B., B. Orgu, and A. Abayomi. 2010. "Low sub-surface harmattan season hypoxia events in the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria." European Journal of Scientific Research 40: 279-286.

Alve, E. 1995. "Benthic foraminiferal distribution and recolonization of formerly anoxic environments in Dramrnensfjord, southern Norway." Marine Micropaleontology 25: 169-186.

Andersin, A.B., J. Lassig, L. Parkkonen, and H. Sandler. 1978. "The decline of macrofauna in the deeper parts of the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Finland." Kieler Meeresforschungen, Sonderheft 4: 23-52.

Andersin, A.-B. and H. Sandler. 1991. "Macrobenthic fauna and oxygen deficiency in the Gulf of Finland." Memoranda Soc Fauna Flora Fennica 67: 3-10.

Anderson, T.H. and G.T. Taylor. 2001. "Nutrient pulses, plankton blooms, and seasonal hypoxia in western Long Island Sound." Estuaries 24: 228-243.

Andrews, M.J. and D.G. Rickard. 1980. "Rehabilitation of the inner Thames estuary." Marine Pollution Bulletin 11: 327–332.

Anne Arundel County, Maryland, Department of Public Works. 2008. “Onsite Sewage Disposal System (OSDS) Evaluation Study.”

Anonymous. 2006. The Benefits and the Challenges of Linked Coastal and River Basin Management, Case Studies. Preliminary Draft Report 13-10-2006. 89 p.

Appeltans, W., A. Hannouti1, S. Van Damme, K. Soetaert, R. Vanthomme, and M. Tackx. 2003. "Zooplankton in the Schelde estuary (Belgium/The Netherlands). The distribution of Eurytemora affinis: effect of oxygen?" Journal of Plankton Research 25: 1441–1445.

Arai, M.N. 2001. "Pelagic coelenterates and eutrophication: a review." Hydrobiologia 451: 69-87, 2001.*

Araújo, F.G., R.G. Bailey, and W.P. Williams. 1999. "Spatial and temporal variations in fish populations in the upper Thames estuary." Journal of Fish Biology 55: 836-853

Arntz, W. 1981. "Zonation and dynamics of macrobenthos biomass in an area stressed by oxygen deficiency." In: Stress effects on natural ecosystems. G.W. Barrett and R. Rosenberg, eds. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 215-225.

Arvanitidis, C., D. Koutsoubas, C. Dounas, and A. Eleftheriou. 1999. "Annelid fauna of a Mediterranean Lagoon (Gialova Lagoon, south-west Greece): Community structure in a severely fluctuating environment." Journal of the Marine Biological Association, UK 1999: 849-856.

Asian Development Bank (ADB). 2003. “Suva-Nausori water supply and sewerage project in the Republic of the Fiji Islands.”

Auer, Martin T., Lisa M. Tomlinson, Scott N. Higgins, Sairah Y. Malkin, E. Todd Howell, Harvey A. Bootsma, Great Lakes Cladophora in the 21st century: same algae—different ecosystem, Journal of Great Lakes Research, Volume 36, Issue 2, June 2010, Pages 248-255, ISSN 0380-1330, 10.1016/j.jglr.2010.03.001.(

Auffrey, L.M., S.M.C. Robinson, and M.A. Barbeau. 2004. "Effect of green macroalgal mats on burial depth of soft-shelled clams Mya arenaria." Marine Ecology Progress Series 278: 193–203.

Aure, J., D. Danielssen, and R. Sætre. 1996. "Assessment of eutrophication in Skagerrak coastal waters using oxygen consumption in fjordic basins." ICES Journal of Marine Science 53: 589–595.

Australian Water., Coastal Studies PTY LTD. and J.H. & E.S. Laxton PTY LTD. “Lake MacQuaire Estuary Process Study – Volume 1-Report.” AWACS Report No. 94/25.

Aviles, A. and X, Niell. 2007. “The Control of a Small Dam in Nutrient Inputs to a Hypertrophic Estuary in a Mediterranean Climate.” Water Air Soil Pollution 180: 87-108.



Baden, S.P., L.O. Loo, L. Pihl, and R. Rosenberg. 1990a. "Effects of eutrophication on benthic communities including fish - Swedish west coast." Ambio 19: 113-122.

Baden, S.P., L. Pihl, and R. Rosenberg. 1990b. "Effects of oxygen depletion on the ecology, blood physiology and fishery of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus." Marine Ecology Progress Series 67: 141-155.

Balls, P.W., N. Brockie, J. Dobson, and W. Johnston. 1996. "Dissolved oxygen and nitrification in the upper Forth Estuary during summer (1982–92): Patterns and trends." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 42: 117-134.

Bakan, G. and H. Buyukgungor. 2000. "The Black Sea." Marine Pollution Bulletin 41: 24-43.

Balkas, T., G. Dechev, R. Mihnea, O. Serbanescu, and U. Unlueata. 1990. State of the Marine Environment in the Black Sea Region. UNEP Regional Seas Reports Studies No. 124. 41 p.

Balkis, N. 2003. "The effect of Marmara (IIzmit) earthquake on the chemical oceanography of IIzmit Bay, Turkey." Marine Pollution Bulletin 46: 865-878.

Bange, H.W., K. Bergmann, H.P. Hansen, A. Kock, R. Koppe, F. Malien, and C. Ostrau. 2010. "Dissolved methane during hypoxic events at the Boknis Eck time series station (Eckernf¨orde Bay, SW Baltic Sea)." Biogeosciences 7: 1279-1284.

Barbieri, E., Falzano, L., Fiorentini, C., Pianetti, A., Baffone, W., Fabbri, A., Matarrese, P., Casieri, A., Katouli, M., Kuhn, I., Mollby, R., Bruscolini, F. and G, Donelli. 1999. “Occurrence, Diversity, and Pathogenicity of Halophilic Vibrio spp. And Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae from Estuarine Waters along the Italian Adriatic Coast.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(6): 2748-2753.

Barmawidjaja, D.M., G.J. Van Der Zwaan, F.J. Jorissen, and S. Puskaric. 1995. "150 years of eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Evidence from a benthic formaminiferal record." Marine Geology 122: 367–384.

Bauman, A.G., Burt, J.A., Feary, D.A., Marquis, E. and Usseglio, P. 2010. “[Tropical harmful algal blooms: An emerging threat to coral reef communities?] (” Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 2117-2122.

Becker, A., L.J.B. Laurenson, and K. Bishop. 2009. "Artificial mouth opening fosters anoxic conditions that kill small estuarine fish." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 82(4): 566-572.

Bentley, S.J. and C.A. Nittrouer. 1999. "Physical and biological influences on the formation of sedimentary fabric in an oxygen-restricted depositional environment: Eckernfoerde Bay, Southwestern Baltic Sea." Palaios 14.

Benoit, P., Y. Gratton, and A. Mucci. 2006. "Modeling of dissolved oxygen levels in the bottom waters of the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary: Coupling of benthic and pelagic processes." Marine Chemistry 102: 13-32.

Berezina, N.A. 2008. "Spatial distribution of macrofauna in a littoral zone with drifting macroalgae in the Neva estuary." Estonian Journal of Ecology 57: 198-213.

Bergondo, D.L., D.R. Kester, H.E. Stoffel, and W.L. Woods. 2005. "Time-series observations during the low sub-surface oxygen events in Narragansett Bay during summer 2001." Marine Chemistry 97: 90-103.

Bernal, M.C., L.M. Londono, W. Troncoso, P.C. Sierra-Correa, and F.A. Arias-Isaza. 2004. Global International Waters Assessment: Caribbean Sea/Small Islands, GIWA Regional Assessment 3a. United Nations Environment Programme.

Billon, G., B. Ouddane, P. Recourt, and A. Boughriet. 2002. "Depth variability and some geochemical characteristics of Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Sr, S, P, Cd and Zn in anoxic sediments from Authie Bay (Northern France)." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 55: 167-181.

Blay, J., Jr. and F. Dongdem. 1996. "Preliminary observations on the benthic macrofauna of a polluted coastal lagoon in Ghana (West Africa)." Tropical Ecology 37: 127-133.

Boadi, K.O. and M. Kuitunen. 2002. "Urban waste pollution in the Korle Lagoon, Accra, Ghana." The Environmentalist 22: 301-309.

Boesch D.F., R.B. Brinsfield, and R.E. Magnien. 2001. "Chesapeake Bay eutrophication: Scientific understanding, ecosystem restoration, and challenges for agriculture." Journal of Environmental Quality 30: 303-320.

Bock, M.T., B.S. Miller, and A.W. Bowman. 1999. "Assessment of eutrophication in the Firth of Clyde: Analysis of coastal water data from 1982 to 1996." Marine Pollution Bulletin 38: 222-231.

Boesch, D., R. Hecky, C. O'Melia, D. Schindler, and S. Seitzinger. 2006. Eutrophication of Swedish Seas. Naturvårdsverket: Bromma, Sweden.

Borja, Á., I. Muxika, and J. Franco. 2006. "Long-term recovery of soft-bottom benthos following urban and industrial sewage treatment in the Nervión estuary (southern Bay of Biscay)." Marine Ecology Progress Series 313: 43–55.

Boyer, J.N. and H.O. Briceño. 2009. “2009 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROJECT FOR THE WATER QUALITY PROTECTION PROGRAM OF THE FLORIDA KEYS NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY.” Southeast Environmental Research Center OE‐148, Florida International University Miami, FL 33199.

Boyer, J.N. and R.D. Jones. 2002. “A view from the bridge: External and internal forces affecting the ambient water quality of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.” In J. W. Porter and K. G. Porter (eds.), Linkages between ecosystems: the South Florida Hydroscape. St. Lucie Press.

Brearley, A. 2005. Ernest Hodgkin’s Swanland: Estuaries and Coastal Lagoons of South-western Australia. Crawley, Australia: University of Western Australia Press, 550 p.

Breitburg, D.L, T. Loher, C.A. Pacey, and A. Gerstein. 1997. "Varying effects of low dissolved oxygen on trophic interactions in an estuarine food web." Ecological Monographs 67: 489-507.

Bricker, S.B., C.G. Clement, D.E. Pirhalla, S.P. Orlando, and D.R.G. Farrow. 1999. National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment: Effects of Nutrient Enrichment in the Nation’s Estuaries. NOAA, National Ocean Service, Special Projects Office and the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. Silver Spring, MD. 71 p.

Bricker, S., B. Longstaff, W. Dennison, A. Jones, K. Boicourt, C. Wicks, and J. Woerner. 2007. Effects of Nutrient Enrichment In the Nation’s Estuaries: A Decade of Change. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 26. National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Silver Spring, MD, p. 328.

Brockmann, U., G. Billen, and W. Gieskes. 1988. "North Sea Nutrients and Eutrophication." In: Pollution of the North Sea: An Assessment. W. Salomons, B. Bayne, E. Duursma, and U. Förstner, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 348-389.

Brongersma-Sanders, M. 1957. "Mass mortality in the sea." In: Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology, Volume 1. J.W. Hedgpeth, ed. Baltimore: Waverly Press, pp. 941-1010.

Brooker, M.P., D.L. Morris, and R.J. Hemsworth. 1977. "Mass mortalities of adult salmon, Salmo salar, in the R. Wye, 1976." Journal of Applied Ecology 14: 409-417.

Brosnan, T.M. and M.L. O'Shea. 1996. "Long-term improvements in water quality due to sewage abatement in the lower Hudson River." Estuaries 19: 890-900.

Brown, C.A. and R.J. Ozretich. 2009. "Coupling between the coastal ocean and Yaquina Bay, Oregon: Importance of oceanic inputs relative to other nitrogen sources." Estuaries and Coasts 32: 219-237.

Buchan, L.A.J. and P.J. Randall. 2003. "Assessment of Stream Ecosystem Functions for the Coyote Creek Watershed: Coyote Creek Watershed Integrated Pilot Assessment Final Report." Prepared for the Santa Clara Valley Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention Program.

Bukharitsin, P.I. and Luneva, Z.D. 1994. "Water quality characteristics of the lower Volga reaches and the northern Caspian Sea." Water Resources 21: 410-416.

Bundy, A. and D. Pauly. 2001. “Selective harvesting by small-scale fisheries: ecosystem analysis of San Miguel Bay, Philippines.” Fisheries Research 53: 263-281.

Burgess, Robert. 2009. Development of Revised Dissolved Oxygen Crigeria for Oso Bay and Laguna Madre. Water Quality Standards Group, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Burnett, L.E. 1997. "The challenges of living in hypoxic and hypercapnic aquatic environments." American Zoologist 37: 633-640.

Buysse D., J. Coeck, and J. Maes. 2008. "Potential re-establishment of diadromous fish species in the River Scheldt (Belgium)." Hydrobiologia 602: 155-159.

Buzzelli, C., A.F. Holland, D.M. Sanger, P.C. Conrads. 2007. "Hydrographic characterization of two tidal creeks with implications for watershed land use, flushing times, and benthic production." Estuaries and Coasts 30(2): 321-330.



Caumette, P. and B. Baleux. 1980. "Etude des eaux rouges dues ‘a la prolife’ration des bacte’ries photosynthe’tiques sulfo-oxydantes dans l'e’tang du Pre’vost, lagune saumatre me’diterrane’enne." Marine Biology 56: 183-194.

Calgaro, E., Naruchaikusol, S. and K, Pongponrat, K. 2009. “Comparative Destination Vulnerability Assessment for Khao Lak, Patong Beach and Phi Phi Don - Sustainable Recovery and Resilience Building in the Tsunami Affected Region.” Stockholm Environment Institute Kraftriket 2B SE 106 91 Stockholm.

Chamberlain, R. and D. Hayward. 1996. "Evaluation of water quality and monitoring in the St. Lucie Estuary, Florida." Water Resources Bulletin 32: 681-696.

Chapelle, A., A. Menesguen, J.-M. Deslous-Paoli., P. Souchu, N. Mazouni, A. Vaquer, and B. Millet. 2000. "Modelling nitrogen, primary production and oxygen in a Mediterranean lagoon: Impact of oysters farming and inputs from the watershed." Ecological Modelling 127: 161–181.

Charlier, R.H., P. Morand, C.W. Finkl, and A. Thys. 2007. "Green tides on the Brittany coasts." Environmental Research, Engineering and Management 3: 52-59.

Chesapeake Bay Program. 2001. Stewardship and Meaningful Watershed Education Experiences. Available at: pubs/subcommittee/cesc/c2k.pdf.

Chechun, T.Y. 1998. "Nutrition of the Acipenseridae of the Sea of Azov under present conditions." Journal of Ichthyology 38: 147-154.

Chen, C.-C., G.-C. Gong, and F.-K. Shiah. 2007. "Hypoxia in the East China Sea: One of the largest coastal low-oxygen areas in the world." Marine Environmental Research 64: 399-408.

Cheng W., C.-H. Liu, J.-P. Hsu, and J.-C. Chen. 2002. "Effect of hypoxia on the immune response of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its susceptibility to pathogen Enterococcus." Fish and Shellfish Immunology 13: 351-365.

Christensen, J. and T. Packard. 1976. "Oxygen utilization and plankton metabolism in a Washington fjord." Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 4: 339-347.

Christie, N.D. and A.G.S. Moldan. 1977. "Effects of fish factory effluents on the benthic macrofauna of Saldanha Bay." Marine Pollution Bulletin 8: 41–45.

Chuwen, B. M., S.D. Hoeksema, and I.C. Potter. 2009. "The divergent environmental characteristics of permanently-open, seasonally-open and normally-closed estuaries of south-western Australia." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 85(1): 12-21.

City of St. John’s. 2002. “St. John’s Harbour Clean-Up Phase 2 - Project Description.” ES-1-1W052002009TOR.

Clabby, K.J., C. Bradley, M. Craig, D. Daly, J. Lucey, M. McGarrigle, S. O'Boyle, D. Tierney, and J. Bowman. 2008. "Water Quality in Ireland: 2004-2006." Environmental Protection Agency.

Clarke A., S. Juggins, and D. Conley. 2003. "A 150-year reconstruction of the history of coastal eutrophication in Roskilde Fjord, Denmark." Marine Pollution Bulletin 46: 1615-1629.

Clay, B. 2005. Management Plan for the Toby Inlet Foreshore and Waters. Shire of Busselton, Geographe Bay: Toby Inlet Catchment Group, Inc.

Cloern, J.E., K.A. Hieb, T. Jacobson, B. Sansό, E. Di Lorenzo, M.T. Stacey, J.L. Largier, W. Meiring, W.T. Peterson, T.M. Powell, M. Winder, and A.D. Jassby. 2010. “Biological communities in San Francisco Bay track large-scale climate forcing over the North Pacific.” Geophysical Research Letters 37: L21602.

Cloern J.E. and R.S. Oremland. 1983. "Chemistry and microbiology of a sewage spill in south San Francisco Bay." Estuaries 6: 399-406.

Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. 2001. “The Long Island Sound TMDL: Frequently Asked Questions.” Hartford, CT: CDEP. Available at: lis_water_quality/nitrogen_control_program/tmdlfaq.pdf.

Conlan, K.E., S.L. Kim, A.R. Thurber, and E. Hendrycks. 2010. "Benthic changes at McMurdo Station, Antarctica following local sewage treatment and regional iceberg-mediated productivity decline." Marine Pollution Bulletin 60(3): 419-432.

Conlan, K.E., S.L. Kim, H.S. Lenihan, and J.S. Oliver. 2004. "Benthic changes during 10 years of organic enrichment by McMurdo Station, Antarctica." Marine Pollution Bulletin 49: 43-60.

Conley D.J., J. Carstensen, G. Aertebjerg, P.B. Christensen, T. Dalsgaard, J.L.S. Hansen, and A.B. Josefson. 2007. "Long-term changes and impacts of hypoxia in Danish coastal waters." Ecological Applications 17: S165-S184.

Corea, A., Jayasinghe, J.M.P.K., Ekaratne, U.K., Johnstone, R. 1995. “Environmental Impact of Prawn Farming on Dutch Canal: The Main Water Source for the Prawn Culture Industry in Sri Lanka.” Ambio 24(7/8): 423-427.

Corea, A., Johnstone, R., Jayasinghe, J., Ekaratne, S. and K, Jayawardene. 1998. “Self-Pollution: A Major Threat to the Prawn Farming Industry in Sri Lanka” Ambio 27(8): 662-668.

Cornish, A.S. and E.M. DiDonato. 2004. “Resurvey of a reef flat in American Samoa after 85 years reveals devastation to a soft coral (Alcyonacea) community.” Marine Pollution Bulletin. 48: 768-777.

Cotano, U. and F. Villate. 2006. "Anthropogenic influence on the organic fraction of sediments in two contrasting estuaries: A biochemical approach." Marine Pollution Bulletin 52: 404–414.



D'Andrea, A.F., N.I. Craig, and G.R. Lopez. 1996. "Benthic macrofauna and depth of bioturbation in Eckernfoerde Bay, southwestern Baltic Sea." Geo-Marine 16: 155-159.

D'Avanzo, C. and J.N. Kremer. 1994. "Diel oxygen dynamics and anoxic events in an eutrophic estuary of Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts." Estuaries 17: 131-139.

Dai, J., Song, J., Li, X., Yuan, h., Li, N. and Zheng, G. 2007. “Environmental changes reflected by sedimentary geochemistry in recent hundred years of Jiaozhou Bay, North China.” Environmental Pollution 145(3): 656-667.

Dai, M., X. Guo, W. Zhai, L. Yuan, B. Wang, L. Wang, P. Cai, T. Tang, and W.J. Cai. 2006. "Oxygen depletion in the upper reach of the Pearl River estuary during a winter drought." Marine Chemistry 102: 159-169

Danulat, E., P. Muniz, J. Garcia-Alonso, and B. Yannicelli. 2002. "First assessment of the highly contaminated harbour of Montevideo, Uruguay." Marine Pollution Bulletin 44: 554-565.

Dargay, J., Gately, and M. Sommer. 2007. “Vehicle ownership and income growth, worldwide: 1960-2030.” The Energy Journal 28 (4). Available at: 20Ownership_2007.pdf.

Das, B., Y.S.A. Khan, and P. Das. 2004. “Environmental Impact of aquaculture-sedimentation and nutrient loadings from shrimp culture of the southeast coastal region of the Bay of Bengal.” Journal of Environmental Sciences 16(3): 466-470.

Daskalov, G.M. 2003. "Long-term changes in fish abundance and environmental indices in the Black Sea." Marine Ecology Progress Series 255: 259-270.

Daskalov, G.M., Grishin, A.N., Rodionov, S. and Mihneva, V. 2007. "Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts." PNAS 104(25): 10518–10523.

Dauer, D.M., A.J. Rodi, Jr., and J.A. Ranasinghe. 1992. "Effects of low dissolved oxygen events on the macrobenthos of the lower Chesapeake Bay." Estuaries 15: 384-391.

Dausse, A., P. Merot, J.B. Bouzille, A. Bonis, and J.C. Lefeuvre. 2005. "Variability of nutrient and particulate matter fluxes between the sea and a polder after partial tidal restoration, Northwestern France." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 64: 295-306.

Deacutis, C.F., D. Murray, W. Prell, E. Saarman, and L. Korhun. 2006. "Hypoxia in the upper half of Narragansett Bay, RI, during August 2001 and 2002." Northeastern Naturalist 13: 173-198.

Debolskaya, E.I., E.V. Yakushev, and I.S. Kuznetsov. 2008. "Analysis of the hydrophysical structure of the Sea of Azov in the period of the bottom anoxia development." Journal of Marine Science 70: 300-307.

DeJonge, V., W. Boynton, C. D'Elica, R. Elmgren, and R. Welsh. 1994. "Responses to developments in eutrophication in four different North Atlantic estuarine systems." In: Changes in fluxes in estuaries: Implications from science to management. K. Dyer and R. Orth, eds. Fredensborg: Olsen and Olsen.

Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC). 2009. Resource Condition Report for a Significant Western Australian Wetland: Hutt Lagoon. Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth, Western Australia.

Department of Environment Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment (Belize). 2008. “National Plan of Action for the Control of Land-Based Sources of Marine Pollution in Belize (Draft).”

Desprez, M., H. Rybarczyk, J.G. Wilson, J.P Ducrotoy, F. Sueur, R. Olivesi, and B. Elkaim. 1992. "Biological impact of eutrophication in the Bay of Somme and the induction and impact of anoxia." Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 30: 149-159.

Desroy, N. and L. Denis. 2004. "Influence of spring phytodetritus sedimentation on intertidal macrozoobenthos in the eastern English Channel." Marine Ecology Progress Series 270: 41–53.

Dethlefsen, V., H.v. Westernhagen. 1983. "Oxygen deficiency and effects on bottom fauna in the eastern German Bight 1982." Meeresforschung 60: 42-53.

Diaz, R.J., R.J. Neubauer, L.C. Schaffner, L. Pihl, and S.P. Baden. 1992. "Continuos monitoring of dissolved oxygen in an estuary experiencing periodic hypoxia and the effect of hypoxia on macrobenthos and fish." Science of the Total Environment, Supplement 1992: 1055-1068.

Dommasnes, A., F. Rey, and I. Rottingen. 1994. "Reduced oxygen concentration in herring wintering areas." ICES Journal of Marine Science 51: 63–69.

Donnelly, T.H., P.W. Ford, D. McGregor, and "Anthropogenic changes to a billabong in New South Wales. 1. Lagoon evolution and phosphorus dynamics." Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 689-698.

Donnelly, T.H., P.J. Wallbrink, and J. Guppy. 1991. Horseshoe Lagoon, Albury, NSW: A source of soluble phosphate to the Murray River. CSIRO, Institute of Natural Resources and Environment.

Dorgham, M.M., N.E. Abdel-Aziz, K.Z. ElDeeb, and M.A. Okbah. 2004. "Eutrophication problem in the Western Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt." Oceanologia 46: 1-20.

Doulgeraki, S., N. Lampadariou, and A. Sinis. 2006. "Meiofaunal community structure in three Mediterranean coastal lagoons (North Aegean Sea)." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 86: 209-220.

Dumont, H.J. 1998. "The Caspian Lake: History, biota, structure, and function." Limnology and Oceanography 43: 44-52.

Ducrotoy, J-P., M. Elliott, and V.N.D. Jonge. 2000. "The North Sea." Marine Pollution Bulletin 41: 5-23.

Ducrotoy, J-P. and M. Elliott. 2008. "The science and management of the North Sea and Baltic Sea: Natural history, present threats, and future challenges." Marine Pollution Bulletin 57: 8-21.

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