These Blue Papers were prepared by leading experts in support of the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy (HLP). The HLP ( is an ambitious effort of 14 serving heads of government and state to catalyze bold, pragmatic solutions for the future of ocean health and wealth. HLP members are from Australia, Canada, Chile, Fiji, Ghana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Namibia, Norway, Palau, and Portugal. The Blue Papers are an independent input to the HLP process and do not represent the thinking of the HLP, Sherpas, or Secretariat.

National Accounting for the Ocean and Ocean Economy: Most countries maintain accounts that tell a story about their economy. The most well-known part of the story is GDP. But the story told by GDP leaves out important details: What parts of the economy rely on the ocean? Is growth in ocean industries making a country richer or poorer in the long term? How does the ocean economy affect local communities and individuals? Is the economy damaging opportunities, based on ocean ecosystems or improving their health for future generations? This Blue Paper shows how countries can make use of existing national accounts to tell the story of the ocean economy, though ocean accounts, that answer these questions to tell a more complete story about the journey toward a sustainable ocean economy.

Integrated Ocean Management: The world relies on the ocean to cover increasing needs for food, energy, and transport. At the same time, marine ecosystems are facing serious challenges from climate change, over-exploitation, loss of biodiversity, and pollution. There is a pressing need to strike the balance between production and protection. This Blue Paper shows how Integrated Ocean Management (IOM) offers the tools to do so. IOM puts ecosystems and knowledge at the center of every decision-making process. By balancing various human needs and ocean uses, IOM safeguards ocean health while supporting growth in a sustainable ocean economy.


  • Dr. Eli Fenichel, Knobloch Family Professor of Natural Resource Economics, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies
  • Dr. Amy Trice, Director of Ocean Planning, Ocean Conservancy
  • Dr. Sandra Whitehouse, Nonresident Senior Fellow, Atlantic Council
  • Ambassador Kåre Aas, Norwegian Ambassador to the United States
  • And more!