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INDC

In 2009, Indonesia made a bold move by voluntarily pledging to achieve a 26 percent reduction in emissions against the business-as-usual scenario in 2020, or 41 percent with international support. Being a developing country with so much promise for economic growth and development, the international community applauded Indonesia for this daring target, which became a game-changer in the stagnant climate negotiations at the time. The National Action Plan on Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emission (RAN-GRK) was soon issued to guide its implementation.

So far, 56 countries (including 28 member states of the European Union) have submitted their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Reflecting the nationally determined nature of these climate contributions, they vary significantly in form, scope and coverage. Yet a key question for all of them is: Have they provided information about whether they are fair and ambitious?

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