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So far, 56 countries (including 28 member states of the European Union) have submitted their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Reflecting the nationally determined nature of these climate contributions, they vary significantly in form, scope and coverage. Yet a key question for all of them is: Have they provided information about whether they are fair and ambitious?


Atmospheric concentrations of key greenhouse gases are higher now than over the past 800,000 years (Global Carbon Project 2014). As a result of human activity, such as fossil fuel burning and land-use change, greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly since the pre-industrial era.


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