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Sustainable Development Goal 9

Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation.

Financing for infrastructure is rising in developing nations, and greater investment is expected. WRI research shows that that about $90 trillion in infrastructure funding will be needed between now and 2030 to achieve the goals of SDG 9. What will that mean for low- and middle-income countries as they build their industries? The investment choices made across the world in the next few years could lead to a clean, climate-smart growth pathway, or a lock us into a high-carbon, inefficient, unsustainable future.

To avoid the consequences of business-as-usual, WRI’s New Climate Economy project and other programs work with governments and industrial leaders to guide investment choices in manufacturing, innovation and more. We share in-depth analyses and recommendations to move decision-makers toward resilient, low-carbon infrastructures and technologies (SDG 9.1, SDG 9.2, SDG 9.4).


The Natural Infrastructure for Aquifer Recharge Financial Calculator, is an excel based tool with a flexible financial model that estimates the private costs and benefits, including the return on investment (ROI), of natural infrastructure interventions designed to enhance aquifer recharge. The technical note explains the methods, data and assumptions used to produce the tool.

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Green infrastructure like forests, wetlands and coral reefs can help traditional “gray infrastructure” perform better. Yet, green-gray infrastructure projects remain relatively niche, mainly because of persistent myths about their costs and feasibility.


There is a strong and compelling environment and development case to be made for securing indigenous and community lands. Securing collective land rights offers a low-cost, high-reward investment for developing country governments and their partners to meet national development objectives and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. Securing community lands is also a cost-effective climate mitigation measure for countries when compared to other carbon capture and storage approaches.


Indigenous and community lands, crucial for rural livelihoods, are typically held under informal customary arrangements.

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