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Right to Resources Interactive Map: Laws Reviewed

This page summarizes the principal national laws per resource that were reviewed to determine the status of natural resource rights in sub-Saharan Africa as presented in WRI's Rights to Resources interactive map.

Select a resource:    Water  |    Trees  |   Wildlife  |    Minerals  |   Petroleum

WATER

Country Principal National Law
Angola           Lei n.º 6/02 Lei De Aguas [Law No. 6/02 Water Law]
Benin Loi N° 87-016 du 21 Septembre 1987 portant Code de l'Eau en République du Bénin [Law No. 87-016 of 21 September 1987 with the Water Code in the Republic of Benin]
Botswana Water Act (Act 40, 1967 Chap. 34:01)
Burkina Faso Loi nº 002/2001/AN du 08 fevrier 2001 portant loi d'orientation relative à la gestion de l'eau [Law No. 002/2001 of 8 February 2001 Guidance on the Law on Water Management]
Burundi Décret-Loi nº 1/41 du 26 Novembre 1992 portant institution et organisation du domaine public hydraulique [Law No. 1/41 of 26 November 1992 on the establishment and organization of the hydraulic public domain]
Cameroon Loi n° 98/005 du 14 Avril 1998 portant régime de l’eau [Law No. 98-005 of 14 April 1998 with the Water Regime]
Cape Verde Lei nº 41/II/84 aprova a Lei de Águas [Law No. 41/II/84 approving the Water Law]
Central African Republic Loi n° 06.001 du 12 avril 2006 portant Code de l’Eau de la République Centrafricaine [Law No. 06.001 of 12 April 2006 with the Water Code of the Central African Republic]
Chad Loi nº 016/PR/99 portant Code de l'eau [Law No. 016 /PR/99 with the Water Code]
Comoros Loi N° 94-037 du 21 décembre 1994 portant Code de l'Eau [Law No. 94-037 of 21 December 1994 with the Water Code]
Congo Republic [Congo Brazzaville]      Loi nº 13-2003 portant Code de l'Eau [Law No. 13-2003 with the Water Code]
Cote D’Ivoire Loi nº 98-755 du 23 décembre 1998 portant Code de l'eau [Law No. 98-755 of 23 December 1998 with the Water Code]
Democratic Republic of the Congo No single principal national water law exists, although a draft Water Code is under preparation. Two laws are relevant: 1) Ordonnance nº 52-443 du 21 décembre 1952 sur les mesures propres à protéger les sources, nappes acquifères souterraines, lacs et cours d'eau, à empêcher la pollution et le gaspillage de l'eau et à contrôler l'exercice des droits d'usage et des droits d'occupation concédés; and 2) Decret du 6 mai 1952 sur les concessions et l'administration des eaux, des lacs et des cours d'eau. [1) Ordinance No. 52-443, revised in 1953 & 1957 on measures to protect sources, tables acquifères groundwater, lakes and streams, to prevent pollution and waste of water and control the exercise of rights of use and occupancy rights granted; and 2) Decree of 6 May 1952 on Concessions and Administration of Water Lakes and Rivers]
Djibouti Loi n° 93/AN/95/3e L Portant Code de l'Eau [Act No. 93/AN/95/3e Covering The Water Code]. Not Available. Laws used to answer the questions: 1) Loi n°51/AN/09/6ème L portant Code de l’Environnement [Act No. 51/AN/09/6ème L with the Environment Code]; 2) Décret n°2000-0031/PR/MAEM pris en application de la loi n°93/AN/95/3ème L du 04 avril 1996 portant Code de l'Eau, relatif à la lutte contre la pollution des eaux [Decree 2000-0031/PR/MAEM made ​​under Law No. 93/AN/95/3ème L from 04 April 1996 Water Code, relating to the fight against water pollution]; 3) Décret n° 2000-0032/PR/MAEM pris en application de la Loi n°93/AN/95/3ème L du 04 avril 1996 portant Code de l’Eau, relatif aux procédures de déclarations, autorisations et concessions [Decree 2000-0032/PR/MAEM made ​​under Law No. 93/AN/95/3ème L from 04 April 1996 Water Code, relating to procedures for declarations, authorizations and concessions]; and 4) Décret n°2000-0033/PR/MAEM pris en application de la Loi n°93/AN/95/3ème L du 04 avril 1996 portant Code de l’Eau, relatif aux périmètres de protection des captages de l’eau destinée à la consommation humaine [Decree 2000-033/PR/MAEM made ​​under Law No. 93/AN/95/3ème L from 04 April 1996 Water Code, relating to the protection areas of water catchments for human consumption]
Equatorial Guinea Ley numero 7/2003, Reguladora del Medio Ambiente [Law No. 7/2003 Environmental Regulation Law]
Eritrea Eritrea Water Proclamation No. 162/2010
Ethiopia Proclamation No. 197/2000 Ethiopian Water Resources Management Proclamation
Gabon Loi nº 16/93, 26 aout 1993 relative a la protection et a l'amelioration de l'environnement [Law No. 16/93 of August 1993, on the Protection and the Improvement of the Environment] Note: Gabon has laws on the environment and natural resources, but does not have a specific principal national law on water. The law on the environment covers inland water, including surface and groundwater.
Gambia National Water Policy, July 2006; National Environmental Management Act, 1994
Ghana Water Resources Commission Act, 1996 (Act 522)
Guinea Loi nº L/94/005/CTRN portant Code de l'eau [Law No. L/94/005/CTRN with the Water Code]
Guinea Bissau Decreto-Lei 5-A/92, aprova a Codigo de Aguas [Decree-Law No. 5-A/1992, approving the Water Code]
Kenya Water Act, 2002 (Act No. 8 of 2002)
Lesotho Water Act, 2008 (Act No. 15 of 2008)
Liberia Integrated Water Resource Management Policy (November 2007, IWRMP). Note: Liberia has no specific water law in place. Instead, it has a two-part water policy, consisting of the IWRMP and the Water Supply and Sanitation Policy of 2009.
Madagascar Loi N° 98-029 portant Code de l'Eau [Law No. 98-029 with the Water Code]
Malawi Water Resources Act, 1969 (Chap 72:03) as amended
Mali Loi nº 02-006/ du 31 janvier 2002 portant Code de l'Eau [Law No. 02-006 of 31 January 2002 with the Water Code]
Mauritania Loi nº 2005-30 portant Code de l'eau [Law No. 2005-030 with the Water Code]
Mauritius 1) Rivers and Canals Act 1863 (Act 35/1863, as amended); and 2) Ground Water Act 1969 (Act 55/1969, as amended)
Mozambique Lei n.º 16/91, de 3 de Agosto de 1991. Aprova a Lei de Águas [Law No. 16/91 of 3 August 1991. Approving the Water Law]
Namibia Water Resources Management Act, 2004
Niger Ordonnance nº 93-014 du 2 mars 1993 portant régime de l'eau [Ordinance No. 93-014 of 2 March 1993 with the Water Regime]
Nigeria Water Resources Act of 1993 (Decree 101)
Rwanda Loi n° 62/2008 du 10/09/2008 fixant les règles d'utilisation, de conservation, de protection et de gestion des ressources en eau [Law No. 62/2008 of 10/09/2008: Putting in place the use, conservation, protection and management of water resource regulations]
Sao Tome & Principe Lei N.º 10/1999 Lei de Base do Ambiente [Law No. 10/1999 Basic Law of the Environment]
Senegal Code de l'eau - Loi nº 81-13 [Water Code No. 81-13 of 1981]
Seychelles Water Act, 1982
Sierra Leone Water (Control and Supply) Act, 1963. Note: Sierra Leone has a 2008 National Water Policy but no copy can be obtained. A new water law is pending.
Somaliland [Somalia] Somaliland National Water Policy (June 2004) & National Water Strategy (September 2004). Note: A 2004 Draft Water Act is still pending. Somalia itself has no national water law.
South Africa National Water Act (Act No. 36 of 1998)
South Sudan Government of Southern Sudan Water Policy 2007. Note: Southern Sudan has no national water law yet.
Sudan Water Resources Act (1995). Note: A copy of the Act could not be obtained. For this analysis, the 2010 Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Policy was used.
Swaziland Water Act, 2003 (Act Number 7 of 2003)
Tanzania The Water Resources Management Act, 2009 (Act No. 11 of 2009)
Togo Loi N° 2010-004 portant Code de l’Eau [Law No. 2010-004 with the Water Code]
Uganda Water Act 1997 (Chap 152, Laws of Uganda)
Zambia Water Resources Management Act, 2011 (No. 21 of 2011)
Zimbabwe Water Act (Chap 20:24) (Acts 31/1998, 22/2001, 13/2002, 14/2002)

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TREES

Country Principal National Law
Angola Decreto N.º 44.531 de Recursos Florestais [Decree No. 44.531 on Forestry Resources]
Benin Loi nº 93-009 du 2 juillet 1993 portant régime des forêts en République du Benin [Act No. 93-009 of 2 July 1993 governing forests in the Republic of Benin]
Botswana Forest Act (1968, as amended)
Burkina Faso Loi nº 003-2011/AN portant Code forestier au Burkina Faso [Law No. 003-2011/AN on the Forest Code in Burkina Faso]
Burundi Loi nº 1-02 du 25 mars 1985 portant Code forestier [Law No. 1-02 of 25 March 1985 on the Forest Code]
Cameroon Law No. 94-01 of 20 January 1994 to lay down forestry, wildlife and fisheries regulations
Cape Verde Lei nº 48/V/98 de 6 de Abril [Act No. 48/V/98 of 6 April 1998 regulating forestry activity]
Central African Republic Loi nº 08-22 portant Code forestier de la République Centrafricaine [Law No. 08-22 on the Forest Code of the Central African Republic, 17 October 2008]
Chad Loi nº 08/PR/14 portant régime des forêts, de la faune et des ressources halieutiques [Law No. 08/PR/14 covering forestry, wildlife and fisheries]
Comoros Loi nº 88-006 portant régime juridique de la reforestation, du reboisement et des aménagements forestiers [Law No. 88-006 on the legal regime of reforestation, afforestation and forest management]
Congo Republic [Congo Brazzaville] Loi N° 16-2000 du 20 novembre 2000 portant Code Forestier [Law No. 16-2000 of 20 November 2000, on the Forest Code]
Cote D’Ivoire Loi nº 65-425 du 20 Dec. 1965 portant Code Forestier [Law No. 65-425 of 20 Dec. 1965 on the Forest Code]
Democratic Republic of the Congo Loi N° 11/2002 du 29 Aout 2002 portant Code Forestier [Law No. 11/2002 of 29 August 2002 on the Forest Code]
Djibouti Loi nº 243/AN/82 réglementant la coupe de bois en République de Djibouti [Law No. 243/AN/82 regulating logging in Djibouti]
Equatorial Guinea Ley Nº 1/1997 Sobre el Uso y Manejo de los Bosques [Law No. 1/1997 On the Use and Management of Forests]
Eritrea Proclamation No. 155, The Forestry and Wildlife Conservation and Development Proclamation (2006)
Ethiopia Forest Development, Conservation and Utilization Proclamation No. 542/2007
Gabon Loi nº 016-01 portant code forestier en République gabonaise [Law No. 016-01 on the Forest Code in the Gabonese Republic]
Gambia Forest Act, 1998
Ghana Forest Protection Decree, 1974; Forests Ordinance (Cap. 157); Trees and Timber Act 1974; Timber Resource Management Act, 1997
Guinea Loi nº L99/013/AN adoptant et promulgant la loi portant code forestier [Act No. L99/013/AN adopting and promulgating the law on the Forest Code]
Guinea Bissau Decreto-Lei n.n.º 5/2011. Aprovada a Lei Florestal [Decree-Law No. 5/2011. Approving the Forest Law]
Kenya Forests Act 2005 (No. 7 of 2005)
Lesotho Forestry Act 1998 (No. 17 of 1998)
Liberia National Forestry Reform Law of 2006
Madagascar Loi nº 97-017 portant révision de la législation forestière [Law No. 97-017 Revising Forest Legislation]
Malawi Forestry Act (No. 4 of 1997)
Mali Loi nº 95-004 fixant les conditions de gestion des ressources forestières [Law No. 95-004 1995 laying down the conditions for the management of forest resources]
Mauritania Loi nº 97-007 du 20 janvier 1997 abrogeant et remplaçant l'ordonnance nº 82-171 portant Code forestier du 15 décembre 1982 [Law No. 97-007 of 20 January 1997 repealing and replacing Ordinance No. 82-171 on the Forest Code of 15 December 1982]
Mauritius Forests and Reserves Act 1983 (Act No. 41), as amended
Mozambique Law No. 10/99 on Forest and Wildlife Act
Namibia Forest Act, 2001 (No. 12 of 2001)
Niger Loi nº 2004-040 du 8 juin 2004, portant régime forestier au Niger [Law No. 2004-040 of 8 June 2004, Forest Regime in Niger]
Nigeria Forest Law [Cap. 55], 1956
Rwanda Loi nº 47/1988 portant organisation du régime forestier [Act No. 47/1988 on the organization of the forest regime]
Sao Tome & Principe Lei n.º 05/2001 Lei de Florestas [Law No. 05/2001, Law of Forests]
Senegal Loi nº 98-03 portant le Code Forestier [Law No. 98-03 on the Forest Code]
Seychelles Forest Reserve Act (Cap. 84); Breadfruit and other Trees (Protection) Act (Cap. 18)
Sierra Leone The Forestry Act, 1988
Somalia Law on Fauna (Hunting) and Forest Conservation (No. 15 of 1969)
South Africa National Forests Act (No. 84 of 1998)
South Sudan Forests and Renewable Natural Resources Act for the year 2002 (Act No.11 /2002)
Sudan Forests and Renewable Natural Resources Act for the year 2002 (Act No.11 /2002)
Swaziland Forest Preservation Act (No. 14 of 1910); Private Forests Act 1951 (No. 3 of 1951)
Tanzania The Forest Act, 2002 (Act No. 7 of 2002)
Togo Loi n° 2008-09 portant Code forestier [Law No. 2008-09 on the Forest Code]
Uganda National Forest and Tree Planting Act, 2003 (No. 8 of 2003)
Zambia Forests Act 1999 (Act No. 7 of 1999)
Zimbabwe Forest Act (Chapter 19:05; 1949, as amended); Communal Land Forest Produce Act (Chapter 19:04; 1987, as amended)

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WILDLIFE

Country Principal National Law
Angola Regulamento de Caça - N.º 2873/99 de Novembro de 1957 [Regulation of Hunting - No. 2873/99 of November 1957]
Benin Loi No 87-014 du 21 Septembre 1987 portant réglementation de la protection de la nature et de l'exercice de la chasse en République du Benin [Law No. 87-014 of 12 September 1987 regulating the protection of nature and the practice of hunting in Benin]
Botswana Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act (Chapter 38:01)
Burkina Faso Décret nº 96-061/PRES/PM/MEE/MATS/MEFP/MCIA/MTT portant réglementation de l'exploitation de la faune au Burkina Faso [Decree No. 96-061/PRES/PM/MEE/MATS/MEFP/MCIA/MTT regulating the exploitation of wildlife in Burkina Faso]; Raabo nº AN-VII 0001/F/MET/MAT/MF portant définition et réglementation de la chasse villageoise, 1989 [Raabo No. AN-VII 0001/F/MET/MAT/MF on the definition and regulation of the village hunting, 1989]
Burundi Réglementation de la chasse et la protection des espèces animales [Regulation of hunting and protection of animal species July 1971]
Cameroon Law No. 94-1 of 20 January 1994 to lay down foresty, wildlife and fisheries regulations
Cape Verde Decreto-Regulamentar N° 7/2002 estabelece medidas de conservação e protecção das espécies da flora e da fauna [Regulatory Decree No. 7/2002 establishing conservation and protection measures for species of flora and fauna]
Central African Republic Ordonnance nº 84-045 portant protection de la faune sauvage et réglementant l'exercice de la chasse en République centrafricaine [Ordinance No. 84-045 on the protection of wildlife and regulating the practice of hunting in Central African Republic, 1984]
Chad Act 08-014 2008-06-10PR Law governing forests, wildlife and fisheries
Comoros No information available
Congo Republic [Congo Brazzaville] Loi nº 37-2008 sur la faune et les aires protégées [Law No. 37-2008 on Wildlife and Protected Areas]
Cote D’Ivoire Loi n° 65-225 relative à la protection de la faune et à l'exercice de la chasse. [Law no. 65-255 on the protection of wildlife and the exercise of hunting (1965, as amended)]
Democratic Republic of the Congo Loi N° 82-002 du 29 mai 1982 portant réglementation de la chasse [Act No. 82-002 of 28 May 1982 on the regulation of hunting]
Djibouti Décret n° 2004-0065/PR/MHUEAT portant protection de la biodiversité [Decree No. 2004-0065/PR/MHUEAT on the protection of biodiversity]
Equatorial Guinea No information available
Eritrea Forestry and Wildlife Conservation and Development Proclamation No. 155/2006
Ethiopia Development, Conservation and Utilization of Wildlife Proclamation No. 541/2007
Gabon Loi nº 46-60 réglementant l'exercice de la chasse et l'usage des armes de chasse [Law No. 46-60 regulating the practice of hunting and the use of hunting weapons (1960)]
Gambia Wildlife Conservation Act, 1977 (Act No. 1 of 1977)
Ghana Wild Animals Preservation Act, 1961 (Act 43)
Guinea Loi nº L/97-038/AN adoptant et promulguant le Code de protection de la faune sauvage et réglementation de la chasse [Law No. L/97-038/AN adopting and promulgating the Code of protection of wildlife and hunting regulations]
Guinea Bissau Decreto-Lei n° 2/2004 estabelece as bases para a protecção, formento e exploração da fauna selvagem [Decree-Law No. 2/2004 establishing the basic norms for protection, promotion and exploitation of Wildlife]
Kenya Wildlife (Conservation and Management) Act, 1976 (Cap. 376)
Lesotho Historical Monuments, Relics, Fauna and Flora Act (Act 41 of 1967)
Liberia National Wildlife and National Parks Act (1988)
Madagascar Ordonnance nº 60-126 du 3 octobre 1960 fixant le régime de la chasse, de la pêche et de la protection de la faune [Ordinance No. 60-126 of 3 October 1960 establishing the regime of hunting, fishing and the protection of wildlife]
Malawi National Parks and Wildlife Act (Act No. 11 of 1992)
Mali Loi nº 95-031 fixant les conditions de gestion de la faune sauvage et de son habitat [Law No. 95-031 establishing the conditions for management of wildlife and its habitat]
Mauritania Loi nº 97-006 abrogeant et remplaçant la loi nº 75-003 du 15 janvier 1975 portant Code de la chasse et de la protection de la nature [Law No. 97-006 repealing and replacing Law No. 75-003 of 15 January 1975 on the Code of hunting and Conservation]
Mauritius Wildlife and National Parks Act 1993 (No. 13 of 1993)
Mozambique Law. No. 10/99 on Forest and Wildlife Act (1999)
Namibia Nature Conservation Ordinance, 1975, as amended by the Nature Conservation Amendment Act, 1996
Niger Loi nº 98-07 fixant le régime de la chasse et de la protection de la faune [Law No. 98-07 fixing the Hunting Regime and Protection of Wildlife (29 April 1998)]
Nigeria The Wild Animals Law, 1965
Rwanda No Framework Wildlife Law. The Rwanda Wildlife Policy of March 2013 provides policy guidelines. Wildlife management based on sectoral laws and regulations, including Ministerial Order No. 007/2008 of 15/08/2008 Establishing the List of Protected Animal and Plant Species, provisions in Act No. 47/1988 on the organization of the forest regime.
Sao Tome & Principe Lei n.º11/99 Lei de Conservação da Fauna, Flora e das Áreas Protegidas [Law n. º 11/99 Law of Conservation of Wild Fauna, Flora and Protected Areas, 1999]. Note: New hunting legislation awaiting promulgation.
Senegal Loi nº 86-04 portant Code de la chasse et de la protection de la nature - Partie Legislative; Decret No. 86-844 Portant Code de la Chasse et de la Protection de la faune - Partie Reglementaire. [Law No. 86-04 on the Code of hunting and conservation; Decree No. 86-844 on the Code of Hunting and Wildlife Protection]
Seychelles Wild Animals and Birds Protection Act (Act 37 of 1961, as amended)
Sierra Leone The Wildlife Conservation Act, 1972 (No. 27 of 1972)
Somalia Law No. 15 of 25 January, 1969, Law on Fauna (Hunting) and Forest Conservation
South Africa National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act, 2004 (Act No. 10 of 2004)
South Sudan Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act, 2003
Sudan The Preservation of Wild Animals Ordinance (1935)
Swaziland The Game (amendment) Act, 1991- amending Game Act 1953
Tanzania The Wildlife Conservation Act, 2009
Togo Ordonnance nº 4 du 16 janvier 1968 réglementant la protection de la faune et l'exercice de la chasse au Togo [Ordinance No. 4 of 16 January 1968 regulating the protection of wildlife and exercise of hunting in Togo]
Uganda Uganda Wildlife Statute, 1996 (No. 14 of 1996)
Zambia The Zambia Wildlife Act, No. 12 of 1998
Zimbabwe Parks and Wild Life Act (Chapter 20:14), November 1, 1975, as amended

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MINERALS

Country Principal National Law
Angola Lei n.º 31/11 Código Mineiro [Law no. 31/11 Mining Code (23 September 2011)]
Benin Loi nº 2006-17 portant code minier et fiscalités minières en République du Bénin [Law No. 2006-17 on the mining code and mining tax systems in the Republic of Benin]
Botswana Mines and Minerals Act, 1999 (Chapter 66:01)
Burkina Faso Loi nº 031/2003/AN portant Code Minier [Act No. 031-2003/AN on the Mining Code]
Burundi Décret-loi n° 1-138 du 17 Juillet 1976 portant Code minier et pétrolier de la République du Burundi [Decree-Law No. 1/138 of 17 July 1976 on the mining and petroleum code of the Republic of Burundi]
Cameroon Loi nº 001 portant code minier [Law No. 001 on the Mining Code (2001)]
Cape Verde Decreto-Lei n° 6/2003 regime juridico de licenciamento e exploração depedreiras [Decree-Law No. 6/2003 on the legal status over quarries exploitation and licensing]
Central African Republic Loi nº 09-005 portant Code minier [Law No. 09-005 on the Mining Code (9 April 2009)]
Chad Loi N°011/PR/1995 portant Code Minier [Law No. 011/PR/1995 on Mining Code (20 June 1995)]
Comoros No information available
Congo Republic [Congo Brazzaville] Loi nº 04-2005 portant Code minier [Law No. 04-2005 on the Mining Code]
Cote D’Ivoire Loi nº 95-553 portant Code minier [Law No. 95-553 on the Mining Code (17 July 1995)]
Democratic Republic of the Congo Loi N° 007/2002 du 11 juillet 2002 portant Code Minier [Law No. 007/2002 of 11 July 2002 on the Mining Code]
Djibouti Loi n°66/AN/94/3e L portant Code Minier [Law no. 66/AN/94 on the Mining Code (7 December 1994)]
Equatorial Guinea Ley nº 9/2006 Ley de Minas [Law No. 9/2006 Mining Law (Nov. 3, 2006)]
Eritrea Proclamation No. 68/1995 (A Proclamation to Promote the Development of Mineral Resources)
Ethiopia Mining Proclamation No. 52/1993
Gabon Loi nº 05/2000 portant code minier en République gabonaise [Law N° 005/2000 on the Mining Code of the Republic of Gabon]
Gambia Minerals Act (Cap 121)
Ghana The Minerals and Mining Act of 2006 (Act No. 703 - 31 March 2006)
Guinea Loi L/95/036/CTRN portant Code Minier de la République de Guinée [Law L/95/036/CTRN on the Mining Code of the Republic of Guinea (1995)]
Guinea Bissau Lei nº 1/2000 Lei de Minas e dos Minerais [Law No. 1/2000 Law of Mines and Minerals (24 July 2000)]
Kenya The Mining Act, Cap 306 of 1986
Lesotho Mines and Minerals Act, 2005
Liberia Minerals and Mining Law (April 3, 2000)
Madagascar Loi nº 99-022 portant code minier [Law no. 99-022 on the Mining Code (30 July 1999)]
Malawi Mines and Minerals Act (Cap. 61:01)
Mali Ordonnance n° 99-032/p-rm portant Code minier en République du Mali [Ordinance No. 99-032/P-RM the Mining Code in the Republic of Mali (19 August 1999)]
Mauritania Loi nº 2008-011 portant Code minier [Act No. 2008-011 on the Mining Code (27 April 2008)]
Mauritius Mineral Ordinance no. 41 1966; Minerals (Amendment) Act 1970
Mozambique Lei N° 14/2002 Lei de Minas [Act No. 14/2002 Mining Law (26 June 2002)] Note: The law is currently under review.
Namibia Minerals (Prospecting and Mining) Act, 1992 (No. 33 of 1992)
Niger Ordinance no. 93-16 (2 March 1993) related to the Mining Law; Decree no. 2006-265/PRN determining details for implementing the Mining Law
Nigeria Nigerian Minerals and Mining Act of 2007
Rwanda Loi n° 37/2008 du 11/08/2008 portant exploitation des mines et des carrières [Law No. 37/2008 of 11/08/2008 on Mining and Quarry Exploitation]
Sao Tome & Principe No information available
Senegal Loi nº 2003-36 portant Code minier [Law No. 2003-36 on the Mining Code]
Seychelles Minerals Act (Cap. 129) (15 October 1962)
Sierra Leone The Mines and Minerals Act, 2009
Somalia The Mining Code and Regulations of the Republic of Somaliland (April 2000)
South Africa Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (No. 28 of 2002)
South Sudan South Sudan Mining Act 2012
Sudan Mineral Resources and Mining Development Act (2007)
Swaziland The Mines and Minerals Act of 2011
Tanzania The Mining Act, 2010
Togo Loi nº 96-004 portant Code minier de la République togolaise [Law No. 96-004 on the Mining Code of the Republic of Togo (22 February 1996)]
Uganda Mining Act, 2003
Zambia Mines and Minerals (Amendment) Act, 2007 (No. 6 of 2007)
Zimbabwe Mines and Minerals Act (Chapter 21:05)

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PETROLEUM

Country Principal National Law
Angola Lei nº 10/04 de 12 de Novembro, Lei das Actividades Petrolíferas [Law No. 10/04 of 12 November 2004, Petroleum Activities Law]
Benin No information available
Botswana Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act (Chapter 67:01). Note: Consolidated version of Act No. 12 of 1981 as at 31 December 2008 and amended by S.I. No. 56 of 1983.
Burkina Faso No national petroleum law. Note: Burkina Faso has no known hydrocarbon resources. It is totally dependent on imported refined petroleum products.
Burundi Décret-loi n° 1-138 du 17 juillet 1976 portant Code minier et pétrolier de la République du Burundi [Decree-Law No. 1-138 of 17 July 1976 on the Mining and Petroleum Code of the Republic of Burundi]
Cameroon Loi n°99/013 portant code pétrolier [Law No. 99/ 013 on the Petroleum Code (22 December 1999)]
Cape Verde No national petroleum law. Note: Cape Verde has no oil nor gas reserves. It depends solely on importation of refined petroleum products.
Central African Republic Petroleum Code Ordinance no. 93.007 (May 25 1993)
Chad Loi n° 07-06 relative aux hydrocarbures [Law No. 006/PR/2007, the Petroleum Law]. No copy of law available. Secondary source used. See https://tinyurl.com/kcxug4z
Comoros No information available. Comoros has passed a new law, the Petroleum Code, 2013, but no copy is available.
Congo Republic [Congo Brazzaville] Loi n° 24-94 du 23 août 1994 Code des hydrocarbures [Law No. 24-94 of 23 August 1994 Hydrocarbons Code]
Cote D’Ivoire Code Pétrolier [Petroleum Code 1996]
Democratic Republic of the Congo Law No. 81-013 General Law on Mines and Hydrocarbons (2 April 1981)
Djibouti Loi n°117/AN/05/5ème L Portant Code Pétrolier [Law No. 117/AN/05 on the Petroleum Code]
Equatorial Guinea Ley Nº 8/2006 - Ley de Hidrocarburos de la Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial [Law No. 8/2006 - Hydrocarbons Law of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea]
Eritrea Petroleum Operations Proclamation No. 40/1993
Ethiopia Petroleum Operations Proclamation No. 295/1986
Gabon Loi n°14/74 du 21 janvier 1975 portant réglementation des activités de recherche et d’exploitation pétrolière sur le territoire de la République Gabonaise [Law No. 14/74 of 21 January 1975 regulating research and oil exploration in the territory of the Republic of Gabon]. Note: A draft Petroleum Code is in process as of 2012.
Gambia No information available. Note: Gambia has law, the Petroleum Act, 2004, but no copy is available.
Ghana Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Law, 1984
Guinea No national law. Note: There are no established oil and gas reserves in the Republic of Guinea.
Guinea Bissau Lei n.º 2/82 estabelece as bases relativas a pesquisa, a exploracao dos hidrocarbonetos liquidos ou gasosos [Law No. 2/82 on liquid and gas hydrocarbons research and exploitation]
Kenya The Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act Chapter 308 1986
Lesotho No national petroleum law
Liberia An Act Adopting the New Petroleum Law of Liberia 2001
Madagascar No information available. Note: Madagascar has a law--Law No. 96018 of 4 September 1996, Petroleum Code--but no copy is available.
Malawi Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act (Chap 61:02), 1983
Mali Loi n°04-037/ portant organisation de la recherche, de l’exploitation, du transport et du raffinage des hydrocarbures [Act No. 04-037/organizing the research, exploitation, transport and refining of oil]
Mauritania Ordonnance nº 2002-05 règlementant les activités aval du secteur des hydrocarbures [Ordinance No. 2002-005 regulating the activities of the downstream oil sector (28 March 2002)]
Mauritius No national petroleum law. Note: There are no established oil and gas reserves in Mauritius.
Mozambique Lei n.º 3/2001 aprova a Lei dos petróleos [Law No. 3/2001 approving the Petroleum Law]
Namibia Petroleum [Exploration and Production] Act, 1991
Niger Loi no 2004-049 du 30 juin 2004, portant Code Pétrolier [Law No. 2004-049 of 30 June 2004, on the Petroleum Code]
Nigeria Petroleum Act 1968
Rwanda No national petroleum law. Note: Rwanda expects to pass a new petroleum law in mid-2014
Sao Tome & Principe The General Law on Petroleum Exploration and Exploitation of August 2000. No copy available, secondary literature used. Note: Sao Tome & Principe is on the verge of becoming an oil producing country, with oil production expected to start flowing in 2016. See: https://tinyurl.com/mypl4tu and https://tinyurl.com/lr7h6z4
Senegal Loi nº 98-05 portant Code pétrolier [Law No. 98-05 on the Petroleum Code (8 January 1998)]
Seychelles Petroleum Mining Act (July 26, 1976) Chapter 167
Sierra Leone The Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act 2011
Somalia Petroleum Law (June 15, 2006)
South Africa Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, 2002
South Sudan The Petroleum Act, 2012
Sudan No information available. Note: Sudan has a law-- the Petroleum Resources Act 1972--but no copy is available.
Swaziland No national petroleum law
Tanzania Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act (Chap.328), 1981
Togo Loi n° 99-03 portant Code des hydrocarbures de la République togolaise [Law No. 99-003 on the Hydrocarbons Code of the Republic of Togo]
Uganda Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act, 1985 (Ch 150)
Zambia Petroleum Act (Exploration and Production) 2008
Zimbabwe Petroleum Act (Chapter 13:22) Act 11/2006

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