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Working Paper

Financing the Energy Transition: Are World Bank, IFC, and ADB Energy Supply Investments Supporting a Low-Carbon Future?

Finance provided and catalyzed by multilateral development banks (MDBs) will help pay for implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Climate Agreement in many developing countries. Although MDBs already track and report on their climate finance, less is known about how...

Untreated and Unsafe: Solving the Urban Sanitation Crisis in the Global South

Cities must ensure universal access to safe, reliable and affordable sanitation so that all urban residents can lead productive, healthy and thriving lives. Globally, the number of urban residents who lack safely managed sanitation has increased from 1.9 billion in 2000 to 2.3 billion in 2015,...

NDC Enhancement: Opportunities in Agriculture

This paper aims to help countries think through the process of enhancing their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to include strengthened actions in the agriculture sector. The paper underscores the need for a tailor-made approach to NDC enhancement that is suited to a country’s unique...

Making Sense of Article 6: Key Issues and What's at Stake

Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will meet in Madrid, Spain, in December 2019 to finalize the rule book for the Paris Agreement, among other tasks. An essential element of discussions concerns Article 6, which provides for international cooperation...

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