You are here

COP21 Publications

COP 21 Home Page  |  COP 21 Events


This page will be updated as new publications are launched during COP 21.

ACT 2015

Analysis Beyond IPCC AR5: Net Phase Out of Global and Regional Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Reduction Implications for 2030 and 2050 (Fall 2015)

This briefing provides an overview of questions and answers on the feasibility and implications of phasing out net global and regional greenhouse gas emissions. It was prepared in the framework of the ACT 2015 project.

Elements and Ideas for the 2015 Paris Agreement (December 2014)

This document offers the consortium’s ideas on how the international Agreement can play the most effective and transformational role in shifting the world to a low-carbon, climate resilient economy as quickly and fairly as possible.

Getting Specific on the 2015 Climate Change Agreement: Suggestions for the Legal Text with an Explanatory Memorandum (May 2015)

This paper is contains comprehensive legal suggestions for climate negotiators to secure a successful outcome in Paris.

How to Strengthen the Institutional Architecture to Support Capacity Building in the Post-2020 Climate Regime (Coming Soon)

This paper examines how capacity building is currently addressed under the UNFCCC and through an exploration of its current limitations, offers options for capacity building under the 2015 climate agreement.

Improving Transparency and Accountability in the Post-2020 Climate Regime: A Fair Way Forward (October 2014)

This report analyzes three possible implementation pathways of a scenario that was developed through the ACT 2015 project designed to limit the increase of global mean temperature to a maximum of 2°C.

Three Implementation Pathways for a 2015 International Climate Agreement (Summer 2015)

This paper explores options for enhancing the MRV framework in the post-2020 climate regime by offering elements that would be common to all Parties as well as those that would be differentiated based on Parties’ national circumstances and capabilities.

Back to top


Adapting from the Ground Up: Catalyzing Micro and Small Business Engagement (December 2015)

This report seeks to enhance private sector engagement in adaptation by identifying drivers of and barriers to MSE action in this area, and by outlining a set of interventions that public actors can adapt to create an enabling environment in which MSEs not only become more climate resilient but also contribute toward the resilience of others.

From Tracking to Action: Promoting Social Accountability in Adaptation Finance (December 2015)

This report looks at emerging evidence of civil-society engagement and identifies steps that providers of finance, governments, and CSOs themselves can undertake to close the adaptation-accountability gap.

Going in the Right Direction? Tracking Adaptation Finance at the Subnational Level (December 2014)

This working paper explores local finance structures in Nepal, the Philippines, Uganda and Zambia. It highlights challenges and good practices in channeling funding to communities that are vulnerable to climate change.

Scaling Success: Lessons from Adaptation Pilots in the Rainfed Regions of India (August 2015)

This report helps policy makers, practitioners and funding agencies identify emerging adaptation good practices and the conditions necessary for scaling up those good practices to achieve adaptation success at scale.

The Plumbing of Adaptation Finance: Accountability, Transparency, and Accessibility at the Local Level (November 2013)

Adaptation is local but reaching the local level is not always easy. This paper explores the challenges of reaching the most vulnerable people with adaptation finance. It identifies opportunities for improvement and proposes a framework to assess delivery of adaptation finance focusing on transparency, ownership, responsiveness and equity.

Tracking Adaptation Finance: An Approach For Civil Society Organizations To Improve Accountability For Climate Change Adaptation (April 2015)

A guide designed to help civil society organizations track climate change adaptation finance flows.

Back to top


Executive Guide to Carbon Pricing Leadership (November 2015)

Co-branded guide with UN Global Compact. It summarizes current experiences and approaches from companies that are pricing carbon internally and advocating publicly for carbon pricing policies. It is designed to inform and inspire 100+ companies to demonstrate specific leadership actions related to carbon pricing. This critical mass of business support for carbon pricing will be an important supportive group for policy action in countries around the world. This brief also serves as a way for WRI to scope and initiate follow up activities in 2016, such as implementation guidance to ensure that corporate actions related to carbon pricing can support ambitious GHG reduction goals.

Back to top


The Trillion Dollar Question: Tracking Public and Private Investment in Transport (January 2014)

This paper attempts to quantify capital investment in transport around the world. Distinguishing public and private investment at the national and international level is the first step needed to shift investment towards more sustainable, low-carbon modes and systems.

Private Investment in Public Transport: Success Stories for Brazilian Cities (October 2015)

This paper explores strategies and approaches that effectively minimize risks for private investors in Brazil’s transport sector.

Back to top


Building Climate Equity (June 2015)

Report offering a new approach to the climate equity challenge that links actions to combat climate change with broader equity objectives. By placing the well-being of people and communities at the core of climate action, well-designed low-carbon energy and adaptation policies can promote and enhance the capabilities of the most vulnerable and least well off.

A Framework for Describing Fairness and Ambition in INDCs (September 2015)

This paper provides a framework and guidance that Parties to the UNFCCC can use in developing and communicating a fair and ambitious climate contribution.

Delivering on US Commitment (May 2015)

This working paper examines where greenhouse gas emissions are headed if the United States does not take any new action to curb their release, how it can meet its 2025 emissions target using existing authorities and state action, and how legislation can achieve deeper cuts over the longer term while still growing the economy.

ChinaFAQs: Taking Stronger Action on Climate Change: China and the United States (October 2015)

Fact sheet describing China's climate mitigation targets and policies, China's motivations to address climate change, and the momentum toward a global climate agreement generated by U.S.-China cooperation.

ChinaFAQs: Renewable Energy In China: A Graphical Overview of 2014 (July 2015)

Fact sheet which situates China's 2014 renewable energy investment in the global context, breaks down China's renewables investment by technology, and displays China's yearly growth in wind and solar compared to other major economies.

ChinaFAQs: U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership (USCREP) (May 2015)

Fact sheet providing an overview of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, a public-private partnership between the U.S. and China working to address significant barriers to the competitiveness of renewable energy.

Seeing is Believing: Creating a New Climate Economy in the United States (October 2014)

This analysis provides evidence and real-world examples demonstrating how the United States is already seizing economic returns while reducing its greenhouse gas emissions—and outlines what can be done to further hasten these positive trends.

Designing and Preparing Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) (May 2015)

This report guides countries on the preparation and design of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), including detailed technical guidance and process-related considerations.

Mitigation Goal Standard: An Accounting and Reporting Standard for National and Subnational Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals (November 2014)

The GHG Protocol Mitigation Goal Standard provides guidance for designing national and subnational mitigation goals and a standardized approach for assessing and reporting progress toward goal achievement.

Policy and Action Standard: An Accounting and Reporting Standard for Estimating the Greenhouse Gas Effects of Policies and Actions (November 2014)

The GHG Protocol Policy and Action Standard provides a standardized approach for estimating and reporting the change in GHG emissions and removals resulting from policies and actions.

Capacity Needs for Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Performance Tracking: A Report on Scoping Activities in Six Countries (February 2014)

This working paper summarizes the results of scoping research conducted by WRI and its partners to assess capacity needs in six countries—Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, India, South Africa, and Thailand—related to greenhouse gas (GHG) measurement and performance tracking. The paper also identifies common capacity challenges—as well as opportunities to overcome them—that are relevant to multiple countries.

This work is part of WRI’s Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) project, which helps to enhance national capacities in developing countries to measure GHG emissions and track performance toward low-carbon development goals.

Guide for Designing Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Programs (May 2015)

The report provides comprehensive, step-by-step guidance for policymakers to design mandatory greenhouse gas reporting programs.

Exploring Linkages Between National and Corporate/Facility Greenhouse Gas Inventories (May 2014)

National and corporate/facility level GHG inventory systems can help countries address climate change. However, these systems are often developed independently of each other, and confusion exists regarding the purpose of and need for each inventory type. This working paper seeks to describe national and corporate/facility GHG inventories, highlighting major differences. The paper also explores potential inventory system linkages to support the efficient use of country resources.

Back to top


Getting to $100 Billion: Climate Finance Scenarios and Projections to 2020 (June 2015)

This paper contributes to the dialogue about what types of finance could count towards the $100 billion goal by quantitatively projecting various finance sources forward to 2020 to demonstrate the scenarios under which reaching this goal is possible.

What Counts: Tools to Help Define and Understand Progress Towards the $100 Billion Climate Finance Commitment (September 2015)

This working paper, a collaboration with WRI, CPI and ODI, aims to make a positive contribution in the lead up to Paris by first unpacking the key variables Parties have emphasized in debates about “what counts”, and then proposing an approach to classifying climate finance that Parties could use as a starting point for their analyses and interpretations.

Direct Access to Climate Finance (December 2015)

This paper explores the experiences to date of national institutions that have been accredited to either of these two funds. It focuses on approaches that these institutions have taken to plan for, access, and use finance received through direct access, and early lessons learned in the process. The primary target audience is other institutions who plan to seek direct access to finance from the Adaptation Fund, GCF, or other relevant funds.

Transformational Climate Finance (Coming Soon)

This report examines how climate finance can be transformational, by gleaning insights from twenty low carbon energy cases that varied in their success, with more detailed analysis of nine countries. It concludes with a framework and a series of recommendations for national governments and Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) on how to catalyze transformational change.

Back to top


Back to top


Scaling Up Regreening: Six Steps to Success (May 2015)

This publications highlights the benefits of “regreening” and its widespread adoption in Senegal, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, northern Ethiopia and Malawi, and identifies six steps to scale up regreening practices in Africa and beyond.

The Restoration Diagnostic (December 2015)

The Restoration Diagnostic is a structured method/tool for identifying which key success factors for forest landscape restoration are already in place, which are partially in place, and which are missing within a country or landscape that has restoration opportunities.

Back to top


The Economic Costs and Benefits of Securing Community Forest Tenure: Evidence from Brazil and Guatemala (November 2015)

Community forests – forests held and used by Indigenous Peoples and other communities – serve as a primary source of livelihood, nutrition, income, wealth, and employment for rural people in much of rural Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Securing Rights, Combating Climate Change found that in countries with strong legal recognition of rights and government action to protect those rights against threats, the rates of deforestation were significantly lower compared to forests outside those areas.

Back to top


Increasing the EU's Energy Independence: A No Regrets Strategy for Energy Security and Climate Change (OCN and ECOFYS report) (October 2014)

This technical report addresses the potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy to displace natural gas use in the EU 28, and discusses the implications of this potential for energy security and climate change. It is accompanied by a separate Summary for Policymakers.

Increasing the EU's Energy Independence (OCN and ECOFYS technical report) (October 2014)

This Summary for Policymakers is based on the conclusions of the Technical Report published under the same title.

Comparative Assessment of GHG Mitigation Scenarios for Japan in 2030 (OCN and IGES working paper) (May 2015)

This study conducted a comparative assessment of 48 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction scenarios for 2030 reported in seven studies based on bottom-up energy system analyses published since 2011.

Climate Change Mitigation in Mexico's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC): Preliminary Analysis and Recommendations (OCN working paper) (July 2015)

This working paper provides a preliminary analysis of the mitigation component of Mexico’s INDC. We examine the implications of the INDC for Mexico’s future GHG emissions, relative to a range of existing GHG projections, identify areas of uncertainty that would benefit from further clarification, and lay out preliminary recommendations for strengthening the INDC in the lead-up to the Paris negotiations.

Peaking China's CO2 Emissions: Trends and Mitigation Potential (OCN working paper) (September 2015)

This paper surveys models that project many aspects of China’s future growth in order to analyze the likely course of emissions in the coming decades.

Assessing Implementation of China's Climate Policies in the 12th 5-Year Period (September 2015)

This paper is a comprehensive, balanced assessment of China’s efforts to reduce emissions and act on climate change since 2011. It identifies key actions to watch for in 2016 as the country unveils its next five-year plan.

Bridging the gap between energy and climate policies in Brazil (September 2015)

This paper examines Brazil’s key energy-related GHG emitting sectors through a climate lens in order to offer recommendations for a more integrated approach that can more effectively reconcile energy and climate needs.

Interpreting INDCs: Assessments of the Transparency of Post-2020 Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Targets of Brazil, China, the EU, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, and the United States (December 2015)

This paper analyses the transparency of the INDCs of eight major GHG emitters: Brazil, China, the EU, Japan, Mexico, India, Indonesia, and the US. The authors highlight transparency gaps that could materially affect the ambition of these pledges. Based on the information provided and author assumption where necessary, the paper also presents estimated emissions trajectories for each country through 2030.

Assessing the post-2020 clean energy landscape (November 2015)

This technical note outlines the methodology, data sources, and calculations used to quantify the post-2020 clean energy plans of Brazil, China, the European Union, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, and the United States.

Back to top



Back to top

Stay Connected