World Resource Institute

Sources and Drivers

Agriculture's Impact on Aquaculture: Hypoxia and Eutrophication in Marine Waters.
Diaz, R., Rabalais, N. and Breitburg, D. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, United States. 2012

An assessment of human influences on fluxes of nitrogen from the terrestrial landscape to the estuaries and continental shelves of the North Atlantic Ocean
Howarth, R.W. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52: 213-223, 1998.

Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment of seagrass and coral reef communities in the Lower Florida Keys: discrimination of local versus regional nitrogen sources.
Lapointe, B.E., Barile, P.J. and W.R. Matzie. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 308: 23-58.

Coastal Nitrogen Pollution: A Review of Sources and Trends Globally and Regionally
Robert Howarth. Harmful Algae 8: 14-20, 2008.
This publication provides an informative overview of the global and regional sources and trends of coastal nitrogen pollution.

Escalating worldwide use of urea – a global change contributing to coastal eutrophication
Glibert , P.M., Harrison, J., Heil, C. and Seitzinger, S. Biogeochemistry 77: 441-463, 2006.

Eutrophication Potential for Food Consumption Patterns
Xue, X. and Landis, A.E. Environmental Science and Technology 44(16): 6450-6456, 2010.

Eutrophication: Sources and Drivers of Nutrient Pollution
Selman, M. and S. Greenhalgh. Washington DC: World Resources Institute, 2009.
This policy note provides a snapshot of the sources of nutrient pollution and the corresponding socioeconomic drivers that are increasing nutrient levels in our waterways.

External inputs as a contributor to eutrophication problems
Jickells, T. Journal of Sea Research 54: 58-69, 2005.
This review considers the nature and relative importance of atmospheric, groundwater and riverine inputs of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, and how these influence coastal eutrophication pressures. The effect of modification of riverine fluxes within estuaries is also discussed. The extent of the perturbation of these fluxes by human activity is considered along with possible future changes in the fluxes.

Global change and eutrophication of coastal waters
Rabalais, N.N., Turner, R.E., Diaz, R.J. and D, Justic. ICES Journal of Marine of Science, 66: 000-000, 2009.

Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication: Nutrient Sources, Composition, and Consequences
Anderson, D,M., Glibert, P.M. and J.M. Burkholder. Estuaries 25(4): 704-726, 2002.

Nitrogen in Aquatic Systems
Rabalais, N.N. Ambio 31(2): 102-112, 2002.

Nitrogen in Runoff from Residential Roads in a Coastal Area
Davidson, E.A., Savage, K.E., Bettez, N.D., Marino, R. and R.W. Howarth. Water Air Soil Pollution 210: 3-13.

Reactive Nitrogen in the Environment: Too much or too little of a good thing
United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), UNEP: Paris, 2007.

Regimes of human and climate impacts on coastal changes in Vietnam
Thanh, T.D., Saito, Y., Huy, D.V., Nguyen, V.L., TA, T.K. and M, Tateishi. Regional Environmental Change 4: 49-62, 2003.

Source Apportionment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Inputs into the Aquatic Environment
European Environment Agency (EEA). December 2005.
This paper examines the primary sources of nutrients into the aquatic environment of the European Union.

Terrestrial discharge into the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon: nutrient behavior in coastal waters
Devlin, M.J. and J, Brodie. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51(1-4): 9-22, 2005.

The European Nitrogen Assessment - Sources, Effects and Policy Perspectives
Sutton, M.A., Howard, C.M., Erisman, J.W., Billen, G. and A, Bleeker. (eds). Cambridge University Press, 2011.

The importance of silicon for marine production
Kristiansen, S. and E.E, Hoell. Hydrobiologia 484: 21-31, 2004.

Too Much of a Good Thing
Sutton, M.A., Oenema, O., Erisman, J.W., Leip, A., Grinsven, H. and W, Winiwarter. Nature 472: 159-161, 2011.

Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: Recent trends, questions, and potential solutions
Galloway, J.N., A.R. Townsend, J.W. Erisman, M. Bekunda, Z. Cai, J.R. Freney, L.A. Martinelli, S.P. Seitzinger. and M.A. Sutton. Science 320: 889-892, 2008.

Groundwater Sources

Coastal eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: Importance of atmospheric deposition and groundwater as "new" nitrogen and other nutrient sources
Paerl, H.W. Limnology and Oceanography 42(5-2): 1154-1165, 1997.

Nutrient inputs from submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Masan Bay, an embayment surrounded by heavily industrialized cities, Korea
Leea, Y.W., Hwanga, D.W., Kima, G., Leeb, W.C. and H.T, Ohb. Science of the Total Environment 407: 3181-3188, 2009.

Large Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Benthic Eutrophication in Bangdu Bay on Volcanic Jeju Island, Korea
Hwang, D.W., Lee, Y.W. and G, Kim. Limnology and Oceanography 50(5): 1393-1403.
The role of submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) in the contribution of “new nutrients” into Bangdu Bay is explored in this technical paper. The methodology implemented includes the use of chemical tracers and analysis of nutrients within the bay. The results indicate that SGDs are the most important source of nutrient inputs and potentially leading to benthic eutrophication within the bay.

Submarine Groundwater Discharge as a nitrogen source to the Ria Formosa studied with seepage meters
Leote, C., Ibanhez, J.S. and C, Rocha. Biogeochemistry 88: 185-194, 2008.

The role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in nutrient budgets of Gamak Bay, a shellfish farming bay, in Korea
Hwang, D.W., Kim, G., Lee, W.C. and Oh, H.T. Journal of Sea Research 64: 224-230, 2010.

Atmospheric Sources

Airborne Nitrogen Loads to the Baltic Sea
Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, 2005.
This report by the Helsinki Commission discusses the various sources of nitrogen that lead to atmospheric deposition to the Baltic Sea.

Anthropogenically-Derived Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, Marine Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Bloom Expansion: Is There a Link?
Paerl, H.W. and D.R, Whitall. Ambio 28(4): 307-311, 1999.

Atmospheric nitrogen deposition from a remote source enriches macroalgae in coral reef ecosystems near Green Turtle Cay, Abacos, Bahamas
Barile, P.J. and B.E, Lapointe. Marine Pollution bulletin 50(11): 1262-1272, 2005.

Historical changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition to Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA
Bowen, J.L. and Valiela, I. Atmospheric Environment 35(6): 1039-1059, 2001.

Is the Atmosphere Really an Important Source of Reactive Nitrogen to Coastal Waters?
Spokes, L.J. and T.D. Jickells. Continental Shelf Research 25: 2022-2035, 2005.


Aquaculture Production and Biodiversity Conservation
Diana, J.S. BioScience 59(1): 27-38, 2009.

Marine Aquaculture in the United States. Environmental Impacts and Policy Options
Goldburg, R.J.; Elliot, M.S.; Naylor, R.L. 2001. Pew Oceans Commission.This paper outlines the main environmental impacts of aquaculture.

Nutrient enrichment and fisheries exploitation: interactive effects on estuarine living resources and their management
Breitbrug, D.L., Craig, J.K., Fulford, R.S., Rose, K.A., Boynton, W.R., Brady, D.C., Ciotti, B.J., Diaz, R.H., Friedland, K.D., Hagy, J.D., Hart, D.R., Hines, A.H., Houde, E.D., Kolesar, S.E., Nixon, S.W., Rice, J.A., Secor, D.H. and T.E, Targett. Hydrobiologia 629: 31-47, 2009.

Loading of nutrient from a land-based fish farm (Orbetello, Italy) at different times
Porrello, S., Lenzi, M., Ferrari, G., Persia, E., Savelli, F. and P, Tomassetti. Aquaculture International 13: 97–108, 2005.

Perspectives of the coastal and marine fisheries of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh
Islam, S. Ocean & Coastal Management 46: 763-796, 2003. The article gives an account on Bangladesh coastal and marine resources. The ecology and productivity of the coastal environment is described as well as the status of the aquaculture/fisheries industries and their effects on water quality.

Perspectives of nutrient emission from fish aquaculture in coastal waters Literature review with evaluated state of knowledge
Olsen, L.M., Holmer, M. and Y, Olsen.
The Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund - Project no. 542014, 2008.

Report on a Regional Study and Workshop on the Environmental Assessment and Management of Aquaculture Development (Asia)
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific , April 1995.

Salmon Aquaculture, Nutrient Fluxes, and Ecosystem Processes in Southwestern New Brunswick
Strain, P.M., and B.T. Hargrave. In Hargrave, Barry T. (Eds). The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Environmental Effects of Marine Finfish Aquaculture. Volume 5: Water Pollution. Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York: Springer, 2005.