World Resource Institute

North America

United States


Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS)
ASSETS’s site was established by cooperation between the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Organization (NOAA) and the Institution for Marine and Atmospheric Research (IMAR). The website provides access to a dataset containing information on the status of systems worldwide (n=157) where the ASSETS screening model has been applied. The ASSETS model is build upon the US National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment (NEEA) developed by NOAA. The website also provides access to publications, details on the methodology of the model, etc.

Oxygen Depletion in Coastal Waters
(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 1998.

National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment
The National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment is a joint initiative between the NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) and the Integration and Application Network (IAN). The NEEA Update is part of the NEEA Program and uses the ASSETS (Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status) methodology which is a collaborative effort between NOAA and the Portuguese Institute of Marine Research (IMAR). This website contains links to the final estuary assessment and a searchable database containing information on all 141 assessed estuaries.

NOAA's Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (NCCMA)
NOAA's NCCMA website provides links to national coastal assessments, information about threats to coastal ecosystems, and current funded research.

USEPA Office of Water
The EPA's Office of Water contains links to programs, data, reports and tools related to water quality.

USEPA National Estuaries Program
The EPA's National Estuaries Program website contains information about threats to estuaries, links to NEP estuary assessments, and teaching resources.


A Synthesis of Water Quality Data: National Estuarine Research Reserve System-Wide Monitoring Program (1995-2000)
Sanger, D.M., M.D. Arendt, Y. Chen, E.L. Wenner, A.F. Holland, D. Edwards. and J. Caffrey. National Estuarine Research Reserve Technical Report Series 2002: 3. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Marine Resources Division Contribution No. 500,2002.

An Assessment of Coastal Hypoxia and Eutrophication in U.S. Waters
National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources, 2003.

Application and sensitivity testing of a eutrophication assessment method on coastal systems in the United States and European Union
Ferreira, J.G., Bricker, S.B. and T.C, Simas. Journal of Environmental Management 82: 433–445, 2007.

Big Chicken: Pollution and Industrial Poultry Production in America
Pew Campaign to Reform Industrial Animal Agriculture. Pew Environment Group, 2011.

Effects of Nutrient Enrichment in the Nation's Estuaries: A Decade of Change
Bricker, S., B. Longstaff, W. Dennison, A. Jones, K. Boicourt, C. Wicks, and J. Woerner. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 26. Silver Spring, MD. National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2007.
The National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment updates the status of eutrophic sites, evaluates current management, and identifies potential changes that can be made.

Effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation’s estuaries: A decade of change
Bricker, S.B., Longstaff, B., Dennison, W., Jones, A., Boicourt, K., Wicks, C. and J, Woerner. Harmful Algae 8: 21-32, 2008.

Feast and Famine in the Great Lakes: How Nutrients and Invasive Species Interact to Overwhelm the Coast and Starve Offshore Waters
Hinderer, J.M., Murray, M.W. and Becker, T. National Wildlife Foundation, October 2011.

Marine Aquaculture in the United States. Environmental Impacts and Policy Options
Goldburg, R.J.; Elliot, M.S.; Naylor, R.L. 2001. Pew Oceans Commission.
This paper outlines the main environmental impacts of aquaculture.

National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment Update: Workshop summary and recommendations for development of a long-term monitoring and assessment program
Bricker, S., G. Matlock, J., Snider, A., Mason, M., Alber, W., Boynton, D., Brock, G., Brush, D., Chestnut, U., Claussen, W., Dennison, E., Dettmann, D., Dunn, J., Ferreira, D., Flemer, P., Fong, J., Fourqurean, J., Hameedi, D., Hernandez, D., Hoover, D., Johnston, S., Jones, K., Kamer, R., Kelty, D., Keeley, R., Langan, J., Latimer, D., Lipton, R., Magnien, T., Malone, G., Morrison, J., Newton, J., Pennock, N., Rabalais, D., Scheurer, J., Sharp, D., Smith, S., Smith, P., Tester, R., Thom, D., Trueblood, R. and V, Dolah. Proceedings of a workshop September 4-5 2002, Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. Silver Spring, 2004.

Nationwide Review of Oxygen Depletion and Eutrophication in Estuarine and Coastal Waters
Eugene E. Collias, 1985.

Nationwide Review of Oxygen Depletion and Eutrophication in Estuarine and Coastal Waters
Whitledge, T.E. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Oceanic Sciences Division: Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1985.

Nationwide Review of Oxygen Depletion and Eutrophication in Estuarine and Coastal Waters: Southeast Region
Stanley, D.W. A Project Completion Report Submitted to Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1985.

National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment: Effects of Nutrient Enrichment in the Nation's Estuaries
Bricker, S.B., C.G. Clement, D.E. Pirhalla, S.P. Orlando, and D.R.G. Farrow. Special Projects Office and the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 1999.

Scientific Assessment of Hypoxia in U.S. Coastal Waters
Committee on Environment and Natural Resources. Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia, and Human Health of the Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology. Washington, DC, September 2010.

The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA
Howarth, R.W. Science in China Series C: Life Sciences 48(Special Issue): 791-806, 2005.

The National Estuarine Eutrophication Project: Workshop Proceedings
Hinga, K.R., D.W. Stanley, C.J. Klein, D.T. Lucid & M.J. Katz (eds). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. Rockville, MD, 1991.

The state of U.S. freshwater harmful algal blooms assessments, policy and legislation
Hudnell, H.K. Toxicon 55: 1024-1034, 2010.


Gulf of Mexico


Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia (LUMCON)
This website was established by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium and includes research, publications, news, and other data sources regarding the Gulf of Mexico.

Mississippi River Gulf of Mexico Nutrient Taskforce
This EPA administered website includes information about the Mississippi River Gulf of Mexico Nutrient Taskforce, the 2008 Action Plan -- a natural strategy to reduce hypoxia in the Gulf, upcoming meetings and events, and recent news related to the region.

National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Assessment
A compilation of six assessment reports regarding hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.

Fig 1. The eutrophication process and subsequent formation of sea-bottom hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (click here for larger version).

Image Credit: Dan Swenson | Staff Research]

The science of hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: A review
Bianchi, T.S., DiMarco, S.F., Cowan, J.H., Hetland, R.D., Chapman, P., Day, J.W. and M.A, Allison. Science of the Total Environment 408: 1471-1484, 2010.

USGS Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico Studies
USGS provides information on nutrient levels in the Mississippi River Basin as well as its subbasins, the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic zone, key players in the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient (Hypoxia) Task Force, and a reference list for related information from other agencies.


Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.
Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force. 2001

CENR's 1999 Preparatory Hypoxia Assessment Reports:

Comparison of Continuous Records of Near-bottom Dissolved Oxygen From the Hypoxia Zone Along the Louisiana Coast
Rabalais, N.N., W.J. Wiseman,Jr., and R.E. Turner. Estuaries and Coasts 17(4): 850-861, 1994.
This paper discusses the interannual variability of dissolved oxygen over a large geographic area around the Mississippi River outfall.

Dissolved Oxygen Conditions in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries.
Virginia D. Engle, J. Kevin Summers, and John M. Macauley. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 57: 1-20 1999.

Distribution and Consequences of Hypoxia
Rabalais, N.N. and D. Gilbert. Chapter 11, pp209-225 in E.R. Urban, B. Sundby, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, and J. Milello (eds), Watersheds, Bay, and Bounded Seas: The Science Management of Semi-Enclosed Marine Systems, Island Press, Washington, D.C., 2009.

Effects of Seasonal Hypoxia on Continental Shelf Benthos
Rabalais, N.N., L.E. Smith, D.E. Harper, Jr., and D. Justic. Coastal and Estuarine Studies: 211-240, 2001.

Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia, A.K.A. "The Dead Zone"
Rabalais, N.N., R.E. Turner, and W.J. Wiseman, Jr. Annual Review of Ecological Systems 33:235-263, 2002.
This publication goes through the process of dead zones with reference to the Gulf of Mexico.

Gulf of Mexico hypoxia: alternate states and a legacy
Turner, R.E., N.N. Rabalais and D. Justic. Environmental Science and Technology 42: 2323–2327, 2008.

Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico
Rabalais, N.N., R.E. Turner, and W.J. Wiseman, Jr. Journal of Environmental Quality 30: 320-329, 2001.
This paper provides an analysis of diatoms, foraminiferans, and carbon accumulation in sediment records as evidence for increased eutrophication and hypoxia in the Mississippi delta bight.

Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Does the Science Support the Plan to Reduce, Mitigate, and Control Hypoxia?
Rabalais, N.N., R.E. Turner, B.K. Sen Gupta, D.F. Boesch, P. Chapman, and M.C. Murrell. Estuaries and Coasts 30(5): 753-772, 2007.
This publication reevaluates the scientific information on distribution, history, and causes of continental shelf hypoxia.

Nationwide Review of Oxygen Depletion and Eutrophication in Estuarine and Coastal Waters: Gulf of Mexico
Rabalais, N.N., M.J. Dagg, and D.F. Boesch. Lousiana Universities Marine Consortium Final Report to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1985.

Nationwide Review of Oxygen Depletion and Eutrophication in Estuarine and Coastal Waters: Florida Region
John G. Windsor, Jr. A Report to Brookhaven National Laboratory and NOAA, 1985.

NOAA's Estuarine Eutrophication Survey. Volume 4: Gulf of Mexico Region
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD. Office of Ocean Resources Conservation Assessment, 1997.

Nutrient-enhanced Productivity in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Past, Present and Future
Rabalais, N.N., R.E. Turner, Q. Dortch, D. Justice, V.J. Bierman, and W.J. Wiseman in Hydrobiologia (475)6: 39-63; 2005.
This study used a steady-state model, calibrated to different summer conditions, to assess the response of the Gulf of Mexico to nutrient inputs.

Sediments Tell the History of Eutrophication and Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico
Rabalais, N.N., R.E. Turner, B.K. Sen Gupta, E. Platon, and M.L. Parsons. Ecological Applications 17(5) Supplement: 129-143, 2007.
This study examined a suite of paleoindicators in sediment cores to determine the historical causes of primary production, eutrophication and oxygen stress in the coastal areas adjacent to the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers.

Ecological Conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1999. EPA-620-R-98-004. USEPA, Office of Research and Development, National health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division. Gulf Breeze, Florida.

Surf or Turf: A Shift From Feed to Food, Cultivation Could Reduce Nutrient Flux to the Gulf of Mexico.
Donner, S.D. Global Environmental Change 17:105-113, 2007.
This study uses the IBIS-THMB nitrogen modeling system to demonstrate how a shift away from meat production from Mississippi Basin crops could reduce total land and fertilizer demands by over 50%, without any change in total production of human food protein.

Toward Reversal of Eutrophic Conditions in a Subtropical Estuary: Water Quality and Seagrass Response to Nitrogen Loading Reductions in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA
Greening, H. and A, Janicki. Environmental Management 38(2): 163-178.


Pacific Coast


California's Critical Coastal Areas
This website is intended to serve agencies, watershed groups, and individuals interested in helping to protect and restore water quality along California's coast. The Critical Coastal Areas (CCA) Program is fosters collaboration among local stakeholders and government agencies in order to better coordinate resources and focus efforts on coastal watersheds in critical need of protection from polluted runoff. The site has status reports on all 101 critical coastal areas identified by the CCA board.

California Coastal Commission: Water Quality/Nonpoint Source Program
The Plan for California's Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Program (NPS Program Plan) provides a single unified, coordinated statewide approach to dealing with NPS pollution. The site contains documents and links to current programs.

Hawaii Clean Water Branch: Current Warnings, Advisories and Postings
A real-time site that includes updated beach advisories for the Hawaii coastline together with interactive maps.

Hawaii Clean Water Branch: Water Quality Data
An interactive map featuring time series water quality data for each of Hawaii's coastal sampling sites. Water quality data includes bacteria levels, Ph, and dissolved oxygen. Conditions at the time of monitoring are also included in this data set.

Hood Canal Dissolved Oxygen Program (HCDOP)
HCDOP is a partnership of 28 organizations responsible for monitoring, analyzing and developing measures to mitigate low dissolved oxygen problems in Hood Canal. The website provides information on low dissolved oxygen issues within the system, monitoring schemes, seasonal monitoring reports, maps, etc.


Biological communities in San Francisco Bay track large-scale climate forcing over the North Pacific. Cloern, J.E., K.A. Hieb, T. Jacobson, B. Sansό, E. Di Lorenzo, M.T. Stacey, J.L. Largier, W. Meiring, W.T. Peterson, T.M. Powell, M. Winder, and A.D. Jassby. Geophysical Research Letters 37: L21602, 2010.

'Dead Zone’ Causing a Wave of Death off Oregon Coast
Oregon State University, 2006.
This article discusses the worst hypoxia conditions approaching anoxia recorded on the west coast of the U.S. at Corvallis, Oregon.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 27 – Gulf of California/Colorado River Basin
Arias, E., Albar, M., Becerra, M., Boone, A., Chia, D., Gao, J., Muñoz, C., Parra, I., Reza, M., Sainz, J. and A, Vargas. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2004.

Harmful Algal Blooms and Red Tide Problems on the U.S. West Coast
Horner, R.A., D.L. Garrison, F.G. Plumley. Limnology and Oceanography 42(5 part 2b): 1076-1088, 1997.
This paper discusses the main populations of algae living in the west coast of the United States.

NOAA's Estuarine Eutrophication Survey. Volume 5: Pacific Coast Region
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD. Office of Ocean Resources Conservation Assessment, 1998.

Numeric Nutrient Endpoint Development for San Francisco Bay- Literature Review and Data Gaps Analysis. McKee, L.J., M. Sutula, A.N. Gilbreath, J. Beagle, D. Gluchowski, and J. Hunt. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report 644, April 2011.

Washington State Marine Water Quality, 1998 Through 2000
Newton, J.A., S.L. Albertson, K.V. Voorhies, C. Mahoy, and E. Siegel.Washington State Department of Ecology, 2002.
This report documents the water quality of all major waterbodies in Washington State.


Atlantic Coast


Long Island Sound Study (LISS)
LISS is a bi-state partnership formed in 1985 by EPA, New York, and Connecticut. The organization is composed by federal and state agencies, user groups, concerned organizations, and individuals. LISS aims to protect and restore the Sound through a series of management and conservation plans including nutrient management, habitat restoration, water quality monitoring, as well as public involvement and education. The website provides information on the Sound, research & monitoring schemes, media gallery, monitoring reports, etc.

Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP)
PREP, formerly known as the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP), is part of EPA's National Estuary Program and is administered by the University of New Hampshire. PREP's goal is to improve the water quality and health of the region's estuaries through a number of initiatives including support of practices and development schemes beneficial to estuarine health, long-term monitoring of estuarine indicators, as well as working together with the public, local government, and other interested parties. The website provides a wealth of information on the region's estuarine environments and current programs, in addition to several resources including publications, maps, etc.


A Decade of Change in the Skidaway River Estuary. I. Hydrography and Nutrients
Verity, P.G. Estuaries 25(5): 944-960.

Expansion of potentially harmful algal taxa in a Georgia Estuary (USA)
Verity, P.G. Harmful Algae 9: 144-152, 2010.

Factors contributing to hypoxia in rivers, lakes, and streams
Mallin, M.A., Johnson, V.L., Ensign, S.H. and MacPherson, T.A. Limnology and Oceanography 51(1, part 2): 690-701, 2006.

Historical changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition to Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA
Bowen, J.L. and Valiela, I. Atmospheric Environment 35(6): 1039-1059, 2001.

Newport Bay and Sinepuxent Bay Watersheds Characterization
Maryland Department of Natural Resources Watershed Services and Worcester County, Annapolis, MD, 2003.

Nitrogen in Runoff from Residential Roads in a Coastal Area
Davidson, E.A., Savage, K.E., Bettez, N.D., Marino, R. and R.W. Howarth. Water Air Soil Pollution 210: 3-13.

NOAA's Estuarine Eutrophication Survey. Volume 1: South Atlantic Region
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD. Office of Ocean Resources Conservation Assessment, 1996.

NOAA's Estuarine Eutrophication Survey. Volume 2: Mid-Atlantic Region
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD. Office of Ocean Resources Conservation Assessment, 1997.

NOAA's Estuarine Eutrophication Survey. Volume 3: North Atlantic Region
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD. Office of Ocean Resources Conservation Assessment, 1997.

Nutrient and Bacteria Pollution Panel Initial Report
Brueckner T., Giles, C., Lee, v., Chateauneuf, R., Gold, A., Liberti, A., Costa-Pierce, B., Hamburg, S., Pastore, B.R., Deacutis, C., Julian, E., Pryor, D., Getz, B.T., Kubic, K. and Wigand, C. Governor’s Narragansett Bay and Watershed Planning Commission, 2004.

Nutrients and Dissolved Organic Matter in the Altamaha River and Loading to the Coastal Zone
Weston, N.B., Hollibaugh, J., Sandow, J. and S, Joye. Proceedings of the 2003 Georgia Water Resource Conference, 2003.

Massachusetts Estuaries Project - Linked Watershed-Embayment Model to Determine Critical Nitrogen Loading Thresholds for Three Bays System Barnstable, Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts Dartmouth School for Marine Science and Technology (SMAST) and Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, 2009.

Responses of Tidal Creek Macrobenthic Communities to the Effects of Watershed Development
S.B., A.F.Holland, and D.M. Sanger. Estuaries 23(6): 838-853, 2000.
This study examines the macrobenthic communities in the tidal creeks of South Carolina and the effects from watershed development.

Sound Health – Status and Trends in the Health of Long Island Sound 2010
Long Island Sound Study (LISS)., New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEIWPCC). and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA Long Island Sound Office Stamford Government Center 888 Washington Blvd., Stamford, CT, 2010.

State of the Estuaries 2009
Piscaquatua Region Estuaries Partnership, University of New Hampshire, Durham NH (formerly the New Hampshire Estuaries Project), 2009.

Synthesis of SWMP Data for ASSETS Eutrophication Assessment of the North Atlantic Region NERR Systems
Dalton, C.C., Dillon, F. and Bricker, S.B. Final Report Submitted to The NOAA/UNH Cooperative Institute for Coastal and Estuarine Environmental Technology (CICEET). University of New Hampshire, Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Organization (NOAA), 2006.

The Ecological Condition of Dead-End Canals of the Delaware and Maryland Coastal Bays
Maxted, J.R., R.A. Eskin, S.B. Weisberg, and F.W. Kutz. Estuaries 20(2):319-327, 1997.
This paper assesses the health of the man-made, dead-end canals throughout Delaware and Maryland's coastal bays.

The planktonic food web structure of a temperate zone estuary, and its alteration due to eutrophication
Capriulo, G.M., Smith, g., Troy, R., Wikfors, G.H., Pellet, J. and Yarish, C. Hydrobiologia 475/476: 263-333, 2002.

Water Quality in the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages, North and South Carolina, 1995–98
Hughes, B., Abrahamsen, T.A., Maluk, T.L., Reuber, E.J. and Wilhelm, L.J. U.S. Department of the Interior . U.S. Geological Survey. Circular 1206, 2000.


Chesapeake Bay


Chesapeake Bay Program
The Chesapeake Bay Program is a partnership that includes the state's of Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia; the District of Columbia; the Chesapeake Bay Commission; the Environmental Protection Agency; and participating citizen advisory groups. This website provides general information about the bay, news events and publications relating to the bay, and other photo and web resources.

Chesapeake Bay Foundation
The Chesapeake Bay Foundation is the only organization that operates solely to clean up the Chesapeake Bay.

PA Nutrient Trading
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP), 2009. This website has information on: nutrient trading, upcoming trading workshops, available webinars on how to do nutrient trading, the basics of credits and NPDES permits, and parties involved.

MD Nutrient Trading
Maryland Department of Agriculture (MDA), 2010. This website describes the Maryland point-to-nonpoint source nutrient trading program for the Chesapeake Bay. It includes resources such as information on upcoming workshiops, a primer on the trading program, and related documents. In addition, this site has a link to Maryland's Nutrient Trading Tool which allows agricultural sources to estimate their nutrient loads.

Integration Application Network
The Integration and Application Network (IAN) is a dedicated group of scientists intent on solving, not just studying environmental problems. IAN and strive to inspire, manage and produce timely syntheses and assessments on key environmental issues, with a special emphasis on Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. IAN is an initiative of the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, but links with other academic institutions, resource management agencies and non-governmental organizations. This website provides links to publications, relevant news stories, events, and rosources (such as a photo library).


Environmental Fees: can incentives help solve the Chesapeake’s nutrient pollution problems
Hoffmann, S. and J, Boyd. Resources for the Future: Washington, D.C.

Harmful Algal Blooms in the Chesapeake and Coastal Bays of Maryland, USA: Comparison of 1997, 1998, and 1999 Events
Glibert, P.M., R. Magnien, M.W. Lomas, J. Alexander, C. Fan, E. Haramoto, M. Trice, T.M. Kana, 2001. Estuaries 24(6A): 875-883.
This paper discusses the increasing frequencies of algal blooms in the Chesapeake Bay and the Coastal bays of Maryland.

Maryland Goes Beyond Other States in Enhanced Nutrient Removal (ENR)
Saffouri, W. Baltimore, MD: Maryland Department of the Environment, 2005.
This article discusses two pieces of legislation that were passed in Maryland in efforts to remove pollutants from wastewater entering the Bay. Maryland’s initial 1983 commitment under the Chesapeake Bay Agreement with six Bay states, prompted the State to establish the Biological Nutrient Removal Program (BNR) to reduce nutrients in treated sewage. Governor Ehrlich’s 2004 Bay Restoration legislation sets a new goal for sewage treatment, referred to as Enhanced Nutrient Removal (ENR).

Varying effects of low dissolved oxygen on trophic interactions in an estuarine food web
Breitburg, D.L., T. Loher, C.A. Pacey. and A, Gerstein. Ecological Monographs 67:489-507, 1997.


Caribbean Sea (US)


U.S. Virgin Islands: Water Quality Program
This page contains links to the U.S. Virgin Island's beach monitoring data, TMDL reports, and water quality permitting programs.


Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment of seagrass and coral reef communities in the Lower Florida Keys: discrimination of local versus regional nitrogen sources.
Lapointe, B.E., Barile, P.J. and W.R. Matzie. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 308: 23-58.

Hurricane Katrina induced nutrient runoff from an agricultural area to coastal waters in Biscayne Bay, Florida
Zhang, J.Z., Kelble, C.R., Fischer, C.J. and L, Moore. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 84: 209-128, 2009.




Bedford Basin Plankton Monitoring Program
The monitoring program is supported by Fisheries and Oceans Canada - Ocean and Ecosystem Science (OES). The website provides access to a detailed database of different physico-chemical and biological parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll) obtained through the long-term sampling program. Additionally, links are provided as well as access to relevant publications.

Halifax Harbour Solutions Project
The Harbour Solutions Project is a scheme put forwards by the Halifax Regional Council aimed to improve deteriorating conditions in Halifax Harbour. The project aims to do so by encouraging the construction and implementation of sewage treatment plants, sewage collection systems, sludge management, as well as a water quality monitoring program.

Environment Canada: Water
Environment Canada's water page. This site provides information about water quality in Canada.


A review of anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and their effects on Canadian aquatic ecosystems
Schindler, D.W., Dillon, P.J. and H, Schreier. Biogeochemistry 79: 25-44, 2006.

Influence of Mussel Aquaculture on Nitrogen Dynamics in a Nutrient Enriched Coastal Embayment
Cranford, P.J., Strain, P.M., Dowd, M., Hargrave, B.T., Grant, J. and M.C, Archambault. Marine Ecology Progress-Series 347: 61-78, 2007.

The 2009 State of Nova Scotia's Coast Report
A brief assessment of pollution risks to Nova Scotia's coastal waters.

Two Centuries of Multiple Human Impacts and Successive Changes in a North Atlantic Food Web
Lotze, H.K. and Milewski, I. Ecological Applications 14(5): 1428-1447, 2004.