World Resource Institute


Effects of Eutrophication on Benthic Communities including Fish: Swedish West Coast.
Baden, S.P., L. Loo, L. Pihl, and R. Rosenberg. Ambio 19(3): 113-122, 1990.
This paper discusses the effects of eutrophication in shallow areas of Southern Sweden on the native benthic communities depending on the amount of available oxygen.

Excessive growth of the planktonic community leads to light attenuation and ultimately having a detrimental effect the benthic plant community and aquatic fauna (click here for larger version). Image Credit:]

Effects of hypoxia and organic enrichment on the coastal marine environment
Gray, J.S., R.S.-S. Wu. and Y.Y. Or. Marine Ecology Progress Series 238:249–279, 2002.

Effects of Hypoxia, and the Balance between Enrichment, on Coastal Fishes and Fisheries
Breitburg, D. Estuaries 25:767-781, 2002.

Effects of natural and human-induced hypoxia on coastal benthos
Levin, L.A., Ekau, W., Goodray, A.J., Jorissen, F., Middelburgs, J.J., Naqvi, W., Neira, C., Rabalais, N.N. and J, Zhangs. Biogeosciences Discussions 6: 3563-3654, 2009.

Marine Aquaculture in the United States. Environmental Impacts and Policy Options
Goldburg, R.J.; Elliot, M.S.; Naylor, R.L. 2001. Pew Oceans Commission.
This paper outlines the main environmental impacts of aquaculture.

Marine Benthic Hypoxia: A Review of Its Ecological Effects and the Behavioral Responses of Benthic Macrofauna
Diaz, R.J. and R. Rosenberg in Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review (33): 245-303; 1995.
In this review, the effects of hypoxia on benthic fauna are summarized and the following are discussed: the impact on community structure and function in fjords, estuaries, coastal and offshore areas; behavioral changes; recovery processes; ecosystem energy flow implications; and tolerance in experimental studies.

National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment: Effects of Nutrient Enrichment in the Nation’s Estuaries
Bricker, S.B., C.G. Clement, D.E. Pirhalla, S.P. Orlando, and D.R.G. Farrow.1999.
This paper assesses eutrophication in U.S. estuaries.

Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves
Lovelock , C.E., Ball, M.C., Martin, K.C. and I.C, Feller. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5600, 2009.

Our Precious Coasts: Marine Pollution, Climate Change and the Resilience of Coastal Ecosystems
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), GRID-Arendal, 2006.

Red tide in Xiamen, in China's Fujian Province, April 21, 2007. Red tides are nutrient-fueled blooms of phytoplankton (often dinoflagellates) that discolor water with their pigments. Several species are known to have toxic effects on marine life and pose a risk to human health through the consumption of exposed shellfish. Photo Credit: Gu Liuzhang | Asianewsphoto]

Spreading Dead Zones and Consequences for Marine Ecosystems
Diaz, R. and R. Rosenburg. Science 321(5891): 926-929, 2008.
This article examines the growth of dead zones and the existing and potential consequences for marine ecosystems.

A Global Perspective on the Effects of Eutrophication and Hypoxia on Aquatic Biota
Diaz, R.J., J. Nestlerode, and M.L. Diaz. 2004 In G.L. Rupp and M.D. White, eds. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, Tallinn, Estonia, May 12-15, 2003. Athens, Georgia: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ecosystems Research Division (EPA 600/R-04/049).

Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution
National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 2000.

Coastal Basins on the Edge
UNESCO, SCOPE, and UNEP Policy Briefs Number 7, 2008.
This paper discusses the threats and effects of human activities where land and ocean meets at semi-enclosed coastal water bodies.

Coastal Hypoxia Consequences for Living Resources and Ecosystems
Rabalais, N.N., and R.E. Turner. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 2001.

The European Nitrogen Assessment - Sources, Effects and Policy Perspectives
Sutton, M.A., Howard, C.M., Erisman, J.W., Billen, G. and A, Bleeker. (eds). Cambridge University Press, 2011.

The Growing Human Footprint on Coastal and Open-Ocean Biogeochemistry
Doney, S.C. Science 328: 1512-1516, 2010.

[image chinaalgae.jpg align=right width=third A massive blue-green algal bloom in the coast of Quingdao, China. In addition to the stress that HABs can exert on marine ecosystem, algal blooms can also impact human welfare in different ways. In this case, the 2008 Olympics sailing events was threatened as the Quingdao coast became choked with algae.

Photo Credit: Eyepress| AP]

Thresholds of Hypoxia for Marine Biodiversity
Vaquer-Sunyer R. and C.M. Duarte.Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(40):15452–15457, 2008.
This study presents a broad comparative analysis across a range of contrasting marine benthic organisms to show that hypoxia thresholds vary greatly across marine benthic organisms.

Varying effects of low dissolved oxygen on trophic interactions in an estuarine food web Breitburg, D.L., T. Loher, C.A. Pacey. and A, Gerstein. Ecological Monographs 67:489-507, 1997.*

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABS)

Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A Brief Review
Nastasi, A. (FAO/GFCM). GFCM Workshop on Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, Istanbul, Turkey, 6th/9th October, 2010.

Centers for Oceans and Human Health: a unified approach to the challenge of harmful algal blooms
Erdner, D.L., Dyble, J., Parsons, M.L., Stevens, R.C., Hubbar, K.A., Wrabel, M.L., Moore, S.K., Lefebvre, K.A., Andersons, D.M., Bienfang, P., Bidigare, R.R., Parker, M.S., Moeller, P., Brandi, L.E. and V.L, Trainer. Environmental Health 7(2): S2, 2008.

Coastal eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: Importance of atmospheric deposition and groundwater as "new" nitrogen and other nutrient sources
Paerl, H.W. Limnology and Oceanography 42(5-2): 1154-1165, 1997.

Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Complex Global Issue, Examples from the Arabian Seas including Kuwait Bay, and an Introduction to the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB)Programme
Glibert, P. International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography. Vol. 2, No. 1. pp. 157-169.

Harmful algal blooms: causes, impacts and detection
Sellner, K.G., Doucette, G.J. and Kirkpatrick, G.J. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 30: 383-406, 2003.

A fish kill event in the Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fish kill episode was attributed to oxygen depletion in the water column resulting from an increased organic load and elevated summer temperatures (GIWA, 2005).]

Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication: Nutrient Sources, Composition, and Consequences
Anderson, D,M., Glibert, P.M. and J.M. Burkholder. Estuaries 25(4): 704-726, 2002.

Human Induced Algal Blooms – Environment Alert Bulletin
Piuz, A., Kluser, S. and Peduzzi, P. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2008.

Occurrences of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) Associated with Ocean Environments in the South China Sea
Wang, s., Tang, D., He, F., Fukuyo, Y. and R.V. Avanza. Hydrobiologia 596: 79-93.
This paper analyses HABs events in the South China Sea from 1980 to 2003. The results indicate that HABs range have increased while their frequency is considered to be varied. Areas where HABs occurrence is frequent include the Pearl River Estuary (China), Manila Bay (the Philippines), Masinloc Bay (the Philippines), and the western coast of Sabah (Malaysia). A combination of climatic conditions, nutrients inputs in river discharges and as derivates of aquaculture practices are considered to be primary drivers in the occurrence of HABs.

Marine Algal Toxins: Origins, Health Effects and Their Increased Occurrence
Van Dolah, F.M. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(1): 133-141, 2000.

Summer algal blooms in shallow estuaries: Definition, mechanisms, and link to eutrophication
Carstense, J., Henriksen, P. and A.S, Heiskanen. Limnology and Oceanography 52(1): 370-384.

Fish Kills

A Fish kill of Massive Proportion in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Gulf, 2001: the Roles of Bacterial Disease, Harmful Algae, and Eutrophication
Glibert, P.M., Landsberg, J.H., Evans, J.J., Al-Sawari, M.A., Faraj, M., Al-Jarallah, M.A., Haywood, A., Ibrahem, S., Klesius, P., Powell, K. and C. Shoemaker. Harmful Algae 1: 215-231.
This publication indentifies and describes a number of conjoined factors considered to lead to two fish-kill events in Kuwait Bay. Unusual warm and calm conditions (i.e. low wind and stable water column), nutrient enrichment, and bacterial disease are among the factors attributed to be responsible for a HAB outbreak and subsequent fish-kill event.

First Record of a Fish-Killing Gymnodinium sp. Bloom in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Sea: Chronology and Potential Causes
Heil, C.A., Glibert, P.M., Al-Sarawi, M.A., Faraj, M., Behbehani, M. and M, Husain. Marine Ecology Progress Series 214: 15-23, 2001.
A number of conditions considered to have led to the first documented fish-kill event in the Arabian Sea (September, 1999) are described in this paper. Reportedly, Calm conditions (i.e. low wind and stable water column), increase in nutrient concentrations, and associated algal blooms may have led to the mass fish mortality observed within the bay.