World Resource Institute

HABs, Jellyfish Blooms & Fish Kills

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

Websites

Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB)
GEOHAB is an organization established to foster international cooperative research on the ecology of key HABs species, and the oceanographic processes responsible for their population dynamics. GEOHAB websites provides detailed information on its research activities, publications, HABs monitoring methods, national/international initiatives, etc.

Harmful Algae Event Database
The Harmful Algal Information System, HAIS, will when fully established consist of access to information on harmful algal events, harmful algae monitoring and management systems worldwide, current use of taxonomic names of harmful algae, and information on biogeography of harmful algal species. Supplementary components are an expert directory and a bibliography. The database is currently in the testing phase and requires a login. However, you can access maps and bibliography information from this site without a login.

Intergovernmental Oceanogaphic Commission (IOC) Harmful Algal Bloom Programme
The IOC Harmful Algal Bloom Programme main objective is to promote scientific research and efficient management of harmful algal blooms in order to understand their causes, predict their occurrences, and mitigate their effects. The programme’s website includes general information on HABs, documentation and publications, activities, etc.

IOC's Harmful Algal Bloom Programme
The overall goal of UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission HAB Programme is to foster the effective management of, and scientific research on, HABs in order to understand their causes, predict their occurrences, and mitigate their effects.

NOAA's Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) HAB Website
Includes details on various regional HAB research efforts, federal legislation, HAB programs, and links to reports and plans.

NOAA's Harmful Algal Bloom Website
The U.S.'s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's website provides a general primer on harmful algal blooms with links to related sites.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute’s “Harmful Algae” Website
The primary objective of this site is to serve as a comprehensive resource for information about harmful algal blooms. Site includes a photo gallery, maps, publications, links to projects, discussion of various harmful algal species and their impacts.

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Publications

Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A Brief Review
Nastasi, A. (FAO/GFCM). GFCM Workshop on Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, Istanbul, Turkey, 6th/9th October, 2010.

Are Pyrodinium Blooms in the Southeast Asian Region Recurring and Spreading? A View at the End of the Millennium
Azanza, R.V. and Taylor, M. Ambio 30(6): 356-364, 2001.

Blooms of Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Gymnodiniaceae) in the Gulf of California, Mexico
Gárate-Lizárraga, I., López-Cortes, D.J., Bustillos-Guzmán, J.J. and Hernández-Sandoval, F. Revista de Biologia Tropical 52(1): 51-58, 2004.

[image sp.jpg align=right width=220 height=240 Fig 1. Microscopy view of a common bloom species (Microcystis aeruginosa) in many lakes and streams of the USA.

Image Credit: Dr. Barry H. Rosen | U.S. Geological Survey]

Centers for Oceans and Human Health: a unified approach to the challenge of harmful algal blooms
Erdner, D.L., Dyble, J., Parsons, M.L., Stevens, R.C., Hubbar, K.A., Wrabel, M.L., Moore, S.K., Lefebvre, K.A., Andersons, D.M., Bienfang, P., Bidigare, R.R., Parker, M.S., Moeller, P., Brandi, L.E. and V.L, Trainer. Environmental Health 7(2): S2, 2008.

Coastal eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: Importance of atmospheric deposition and groundwater as "new" nitrogen and other nutrient sources
Paerl, H.W. Limnology and Oceanography 42(5-2): 1154-1165, 1997.

Ecological and Physiological Studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: A Review
Band-Schmidt, C.J., Bustillos-Guzman, J.J., Lopez-Cortes, D.J., Garate-Lizarraga, I., Núñez-Vázquez, E.J. and Hernandez-Sandoval, F.E. Marine Drugs 8: 1935-1961, 2010.

Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Complex Global Issue, Examples from the Arabian Seas including Kuwait Bay, and an Introduction to the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB)Programme
Glibert, P. International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography. Vol. 2, No. 1. pp. 157-169.

Expansion of potentially harmful algal taxa in a Georgia Estuary (USA)
Verity, P.G. Harmful Algae 9: 144-152, 2010.

First occurrence of Cochlodinium blooms in Sabah, Malaysia
Anton, A., Teoh, P.L., Mohd-Shaleg, S.R. and N, Mohammad-Noor. Harmful Algae 7: 331-336, 2008.

First Record of a Fish-Killing Gymnodinium sp. Bloom in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Sea: Chronology and Potential Causes
Heil, C.A., Glibert, P.M., Al-Sarawi, M.A., Faraj, M., Behbehani, M. and M, Husain. Marine Ecology Progress Series 214: 15-23, 2001.
A number of conditions considered to have led to the first documented fish-kill event in the Arabian Sea (September, 1999) are described in this paper. Reportedly, meteorological conditions, increase in nutrient concentrations, and associated algal blooms may have led to the mass fish mortality observed within the bay.

Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication: Nutrient Sources, Composition, and Consequences
Anderson, D.M., Glibert, P.M. and J.M, Burkholder. Estuaries 25(4b): 704-726, 2002.

Harmful algal blooms: causes, impacts and detection
Sellner, K.G., Doucette, G.J. and Kirkpatrick, G.J. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 30: 383-406, 2003.

Harmful algae on tropical coral reefs: Bottom-up eutrophication and top-down herbivory
Littler, M.M., Littler, D.S. and B.L, Brooks. Harmful Algae 5(5): 565-585, 2006.

Human Induced Algal Blooms – Environment Alert Bulletin
Piuz, A., Kluser, S. and Peduzzi, P. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2008.

Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health
Moore, S.K., Trainer, V.L., Mantua, N.J., Parker, M.S., Laws, E.A., Backer, L.C. and L.E, Fleming. Environmental Health 7(2): S4, 2008.

Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae
Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. and A.D, Cembella (eds.). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Manuals and Guides No. 33 – UNESCO, 1995.

Marine Algal Toxins: Origins, Health Effects and Their Increased Occurrence
Van Dolah, F.M. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(1): 133-141, 2000.

Occurrences of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) Associated with Ocean Environments in the South China Sea
Wang, s., Tang, D., He, F., Fukuyo, Y. and R.V. Avanza. Hydrobiologia 596: 79-93.
This paper analyses HABs events in the South China Sea from 1980 to 2003. The results indicate that HABs range have increased while their frequency is considered to be varied. Areas where HABs occurrence is frequent include the Pearl River Estuary (China), Manila Bay (the Philippines), Masinloc Bay (the Philippines), and the western coast of Sabah (Malaysia). A combination of climatic conditions, nutrients inputs from river discharges and as derivates of aquaculture practices are considered to be drivers in the occurrence of HABs.

On the Occurrence of Green Noctiluca Scintillans Blooms in Coastal Waters of Pakistan, North Arabian Sea
Chaghtai, F. and S.M, Saifullah. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 38(3): 893-898, 2006.

Regional Review of Harmful Algal Events in the Caribbean
OC Regional Science Planning Workshop on Harmful Algal Blooms in IOCARIBE- ANCA IV. San Andres, Colombia, 2007.

Summer algal blooms in shallow estuaries: Definition, mechanisms, and link to eutrophication
Carstense, J., Henriksen, P. and A.S, Heiskanen. Limnology and Oceanography 52(1): 370-384.

Taxonomic and ecological profile of ‘green tide’ species of Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in central Philippines
Largo, D.B., Sembrano, J., Hiraoka, M. and M, Ohno. Hydrobiologia 512: 246-253, 2004.

The catastrophic 2008–2009 red tide in the Arabian gulf region, with observations on the identification and phylogeny of the fish-killing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides
Richlen, M.L., Morton, S.L., Jamali, E.A., Rajan, A. and Anderson, D.M. Harmful Algae 9: 163-172, 2010.

The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment on algal community development: Artificial mini-reefs on the Belize Barrier Reef sedimentary lagoon
Littler, M.M., Littler, D.S. and B.L, Brooks. Harmful Algae 9(3): 255-263, 2010.

The state of U.S. freshwater harmful algal blooms assessments, policy and legislation
Hudnell, H.K. Toxicon 55: 1024-1034, 2010.

Toxic dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands
Rhodes, L.L., Smith, K.F., Munday, R., Selwood, A.I., McNabb, P.S., Holland, P.T. and Bottein, M.Y. Toxicon 56: 751-758, 2010.

Tropical harmful algal blooms: An emerging threat to coral reef communities?
Bauman, A.G., Burt, J.A., Feary, D.A., Marquis, E. and Usseglio, P. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 2117-2122, 2010.

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Jellyfish Blooms

Publications

[image Jellys_GFCM_paper.jpg align=right width=120 height=100 Fig 2. Invasive jellyfish species of the Mediterranean. The cnidarian Rhopilema nomadica (top), and the ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi (middle) and Beroe ovata (bottom).

Image Credit: GFCM]

Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and their direct consequences for humans: a review
Purcell, J.E., Uye, S. and W, Lo. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 350: 153-174, 2007.

Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A Brief Review
Nastasi, A. (FAO/GFCM). GFCM Workshop on Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, Istanbul, Turkey, 6th/9th October, 2010.

Have jellyfish in the Irish Sea benefited from climate change and overfishing?
Lynam, C.P., Lilley, M.K.S., Bastian, T., Doyle, T.K., S.E, Beggs. and G.C, Hays. Global Change Biology, “Accepted Article”, 2010.

Increasing jellyfish populations: trends in Large Marine Ecosystems
Lucas Brotz, William W. L. Cheung, Kristin Kleisner, Evgeny Pakhomov, and Daniel Pauly. Hydrobiologia 690:3–20, 2012.

The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management responses to a more gelatinous future
Richardson, A.J., Bakun, A., Hays, G.C. and M.J, Gibbons. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24(6): 312-322, 2009.

Overfishing drives a trophic cascade in the Black Sea
Daskalov, G.M. Marine Ecology Progress Series 225:53-63.

Pelagic coelenterates and eutrophication: a review
Aray, M.N. Hydrobiologia 451(1-3): 69-87, 2001.

Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts
Daskalov, G.M., Grishin, A.N., Rodionov, S. and Mihneva, V. PNAS 104(25): 10518–10523, 2007.

Jellyfish blooms in China: Dominant species, causes and consequences
Dong, Z., Liu, D. and J.K, Keesing. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60(7): 954-963, 2010.

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Fish Kills

Publications

A fish kill of Massive Proportion in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Gulf, 2001: the Roles of Bacterial Disease, Harmful Algae, and Eutrophication
Glibert, P.M., Landsberg, J.H., Evans, J.J., Al-Sawari, M.A., Faraj, M., Al-Jarallah, M.A., Haywood, A., Ibrahem, S., Klesius, P., Powell, K. and C. Shoemaker. Harmful Algae 1: 215-231.
This publication indentifies and describes a number of conjoined factors considered to lead to two fish-kill events in Kuwait Bay. Particular meteorological conditions, nutrient enrichment, and bacterial disease are among the factors attributed to be responsible for a HAB outbreak and subsequent fish-kill event.

First Record of a Fish-Killing Gymnodinium sp. Bloom in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Sea: Chronology and Potential Causes
Heil, C.A., Glibert, P.M., Al-Sarawi, M.A., Faraj, M., Behbehani, M. and M, Husain. Marine Ecology Progress Series 214: 15-23, 2001.
A number of conditions considered to have led to the first documented fish-kill event in the Arabian Sea (September, 1999) are described in this paper. Reportedly, meteorological conditions, increase in nutrient concentrations, and associated algal blooms may have led to the mass fish mortality observed within the bay.

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