World Resource Institute

Eutrophication & Coral Reefs


Atmospheric nitrogen deposition from a remote source enriches macroalgae in coral reef ecosystems near Green Turtle Cay, Abacos, Bahamas
Barile, P.J. and B.E, Lapointe. Marine Pollution bulletin 50(11): 1262-1272, 2005.

Anthropogenic Nutrient Pollution of Coral Reefs in Southern Bahia, Brazil
Costas Jr, O.Z. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography 55(4): 265-279, 2007.

Bioerosion of Live Massive Corals and Branching Coral Rubble on Indonesian Coral Reefs
Holmes, K.E., Edinger, E.N., Hariyadi, G., Limmon, V. and M.j. Risk. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(7): 606-617, 2000.

Coastal nutrification in Brazil: A review of the role of nutrient excess on coral reef demise
Costas Jr, O.Z., Nimmo, M. and M.J, Attrill. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 25: 257-270, 2008.

Coral Reefs, Sewage, and Water Quality Standards
Goreau, T.J., and K. Thacker. Caribbean Water and Wastewater Association Conference Report, 1994.
Coral reefs in the Caribbean are no longer able to provide habitat for fish because of habitat degradation from sewage releases to coastal waters. This paper assesses the causes and effects of the massive algae overgrowth in several regions within the Caribbean.

Harmful algae on tropical coral reefs: Bottom-up eutrophication and top-down herbivory
Littler, M.M., Littler, D.S. and B.L, Brooks. Harmful Algae 5(5): 565-585, 2006.

Land-Sourced Pollution with an Emphasis on Domestic Sewage: Lessons from the Caribbean and Implications for Coastal Development on Indian Ocean and Pacific Coral Reefs
DeGeorges, A., Goreau, T.J. and B, Reilly. Sustainability 2: 2919-2949, 2010.

Nutrients levels and their dynamics in the coral reefs of Zanzibar Town
Mohamed, M.S. and Mgaya, Y.D. In *M.D. Richard and J. Francis (eds), Marine Science Development in Tanzania and Eastern Africa, Proceeding of the 20th Anniversary Conference on Advances in Marine Science in Tanzania, 28 June -1 July 1999, Zanzibar, Tanzania. IMS/WIOMSA, 569, 2001.*

The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment on algal community development: Artificial mini-reefs on the Belize Barrier Reef sedimentary lagoon
Littler, M.M., Littler, D.S. and B.L, Brooks. Harmful Algae 9(3): 255-263, 2010.

The Status of the Coral Reefs of Zanzibar: One Example of a Regional Predicament
Johnstone, R.W., Muhando, C.W., and Francis, J. Ambio 27 (8) Building Capacity for Coastal Management: 700-707, 1998.

Tropical harmful algal blooms: An emerging threat to coral reef communities?
Bauman, A.G., Burt, J.A., Feary, D.A., Marquis, E. and Usseglio, P. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 2117-2122, 2010.