World Resource Institute

Africa & Middle East



IOC Network on Harmful Algae in North Africa (HANA)
HANA is responsible for the study of harmful algae in North African countries. The organization is currently dedicated to the collection of regional material involving HABs. HANA’s websites offers general information on HABs, publications, information on events, and will in the near future provide a database with regional information on HABs.

South Africa: State of the Environment
A website highlighting the various themes and findings of South Africa's 2009 State of the Environment Report. The report includes findings on pressures to coastal resources. The site includes an interactive map and links to GIS data sets.

The Interim Guinea Current Commission
A website dedicated to the Interim Guinea Current Commission that aims to streamline and bolster the management of the region’s Large Marine Ecosystem, an endangered body of water and 5,560 kilometres of coastline stretching from Guinea-Bissau to the northern Angolan Province of Cabinda.


Changes in morphology and growth of the mudskipper (Periophthalmus argentilineatus) associated with coastal pollution
Kruitwagen, G., Hecht, T., Pratap, H.B. and Wendelaar Bonga, S.E. Marine Biology 149: 201-211, 2006.

Copepod composition, abundance and diversity in Makupa Creek, Mombasa, Kenya
Osore, M.K.W., Fiers, F. and D.H. Daro. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science 2(1): 65-73.

Environmental pollution in the Gulf of Guinea – a regional approach
Scheren, P.A., Ibe, A.C., Janseen, F.J. and A.M, Lemmens. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(7): 633-641, 2002.

Estuarine microbial community characteristics as indicators of human-induced changes (Senegal River, West Africa)
Bouvy, M., Arfi, R., Bernard, C., Carre, C., Got, P., Pagano, M. and M, Troussellier. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 87(4): 573-582.

Eutrophication and nutrient release in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa — A review
Nyenje, P.M., Foppen, J.W., Uhlenbrook, S., Kulabako, R. and Muwanga, A. Science of the Total Environment 408(3): 447-455, 2010.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 44 – Benguela Current
Prochazka, K., Davies, B., Griffiths, C., Hara, M., Luyeye, N., O’Toole, M., Bodenstein, J., Probyn, T., Clark, b., Earle, A., Tapscott. and Hasler, R. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2005.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 41 – Canary Current
Tayaa, M., Saine, A., Ndiave, G. and Deme, M. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2005.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 42 – Guinea Current
Abe, J., Wellens-Mensah, j., Diallo, O.S. and Mbuyil Wa Mpoyi, C. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2004.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 45b – Indian Ocean Islands
Payet, R.A., Soogun, N., Ranaivoson, E., Payet, R.J. and Ali Abdallah, F. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2004.

Integrated approach to nutrient cycling monitoring
Scholes, M.C., de Villiers, S., Scholes, R.J. and G, Feig. South African Journal of Science 103: 323-328.

Integrated water pollution assessment of the Ebrie Lagoon, Ivory Coast, West Africa
Scheren, P.A., Kroeze, C., Janssen, F.J.J.G., Hordijk, L. and K.J, Ptasinski. Journal of Marine Systems 44(1-2): 1-17, 2004.

Kenya – Review of coastal marine environment and pollution issues
Obura, D.O. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(12): 1264-1278, 2001.

Land-Sourced Pollution with an Emphasis on Domestic Sewage: Lessons from the Caribbean and Implications for Coastal Development on Indian Ocean and Pacific Coral Reefs
DeGeorges, A., Goreau, T.J. and B, Reilly. Sustainability 2: 2919-2949, 2010.

Nutrients levels and their dynamics in the coral reefs of Zanzibar Town
* Mohammed, M.S. and Mgaya, Y.D. In M.D. Richard and J. Francis (eds), Marine Science Development in Tanzania and Eastern Africa, Proceeding of the 20th Anniversary Conference on Advances in Marine Science in Tanzania, 28 June -1 July 1999, Zanzibar, Tanzania. IMS/WIOMSA, 569, 2001.*

Physico-Chemical Quality of Elechi Creek in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Obire, O., Tamuno, D.C. and S.A, Wemedo. Journal of Applied Sciences & Environmental Management 7(1): 43-49, 2003.

Phytoplankton biomass and size structure in two South African eutrophic, temporarily open/closed estuaries
Thomas, M., Perissinotto, R. and I, Kibirige. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 65(1-2): 223-228, 2005.

Phytoplankton growth control and risk of cyanobacterial blooms in the lower Senegal River delta region
Quiblier, C., Leboulanger, C., Sane, S. and P, Dufour. Water Research 45(4-5): 1023-1034, 2008.

Pollution and Self-Cleansing of an Urban River in a Developing Country: A Case Study in Dar es Salaam,Tanzania
Mbuligwe, S.E. and M.E, Kaseva. Environmental Management 36(2): 328-342, 2005

Status of pollution in mangrove ecosystems along the coast of Tanzania
Kruitwagen, g., Pratap, H.B., Covaci, A. and Wendelaar Bonga, S.E. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 1022-1042, 2008.

The Status of the Coral Reefs of Zanzibar: One Example of a Regional Predicament
Johnstone, R.W., Muhando, C.W., and Francis, J. Ambio 27 (8) Building Capacity for Coastal Management: 700-707, 1998.


Middle East


A fish kill of Massive Proportion in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Gulf, 2001: the Roles of Bacterial Disease, Harmful Algae, and Eutrophication
Glibert, P.M., Landsberg, J.H., Evans, J.J., Al-Sawari, M.A., Faraj, M., Al-Jarallah, M.A., Haywood, A., Ibrahem, S., Klesius, P., Powell, K. and C. Shoemaker. Harmful Algae 1: 215-231, 2002.
This publication indentifies and describes a number of conjoined factors considered to lead to two fish-kill events in Kuwait Bay. Particular meteorological conditions, nutrient enrichment, and bacterial disease are among the factors attributed to be responsible for a HAB outbreak and subsequent fish-kill event.

Benthic foraminifera from polluted marine environment of Sulaibikhat Bay (Kuwait)
Al-Zamel, A.Z., Al-Sarawi, M.A., Khader, S.R. and Al-Rifay, I.A. Environmental Monitoring Assessment 149: 395-409, 2009.

Effect of Waste Discharges on Nutrients Content and Growth of Chlorella sp. from Shatt Al-Arab River
Al-Asadi, M.S., Salman, N.A. and Mahdi, A.A. JKAU: Mar. Sci 17: 89-101, 2006.

Environmental Issues in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with a Special Focus on Water Quality
General Department of Environmental Health, Riyadh Municipality. May 2009.
A general overview of water quality problems facing Jeddah, Saudi Arabia published online by the Riyadh Municipality.

Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Complex Global Issue, Examples from the Arabian Seas including Kuwait Bay, and an Introduction to the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB)Programme
Glibert, P. International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography. Vol. 2, No. 1. pp. 157-169.

First Record of a Fish-Killing Gymnodinium sp. Bloom in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Sea: Chronology and Potential Causes
Heil, C.A., Glibert, P.M., Al-Sarawi, M.A., Faraj, M., Behbehani, M. and M, Husain. Marine Ecology Progress Series 214: 15-23, 2001.
A number of conditions considered to have led to the first documented fish-kill event in the Arabian Sea (September, 1999) are described in this paper. Reportedly, meteorological conditions, increase in nutrient concentrations, and associated algal blooms may have led to the mass fish mortality observed within the bay.

Review of limnological and oceanographic data base in Iraq during 1973 1977
Saad, M.A.H. International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography 2(1): 1-16, 2007.

Some ecological studies on hydrophytes from Shatt Al-Arab River
Al-Asadi, M.S., Talal, A.M. and Hreeb, K.K. International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography 2(1): 61–68, 2007.

The catastrophic 2008–2009 red tide in the Arabian gulf region, with observations on the identification and phylogeny of the fish-killing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides
Richlen, M.L., Morton, S.L., Jamali, E.A., Rajan, A. and Anderson, D.M. Harmful Algae 9: 163-172, 2010.

Tropical harmful algal blooms: An emerging threat to coral reef communities?
Bauman, A.G., Burt, J.A., Feary, D.A., Marquis, E. and Usseglio, P. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 2117-2122, 2010.