A new WRI working paper, “Monitoring Climate Finance in Developing Countries: Challenges and Next Steps,” draws on a series of three regional workshops in Latin America, Africa, and Asia where representatives from governments and other agencies discussed the challenges in monitoring climate finance flows, and some of the efforts their countries are making to overcome these challenges.
Reporting on a Series of Three Workshops
This working paper reports on a series of three regional workshops in which participants from governments in Latin America, Africa and Asia reflected on the main technical, policy, and capacity challenges to monitoring climate finance, and exchanged experiences on efforts that are under way in...
Seventy-five percent of the world’s poor live in often ignored and neglected rural areas. National systems for education and health care, for example, don’t always reach the most needy. In many cases, national governments do not clearly know where their poor populations reside. WRI’s poverty maps are providing governments with powerful visual information about where the poor live and where their federal resources are being spent. With these maps, governments can see the problems and better direct scarce financial resources to where they are needed most. Kenya’s Constituency Development Fund was created in early 2005 to channel development funds to the grassroots level through locally-based initiatives. Relying on poverty maps that WRI helped create, a Poverty Index has been developed by the Kenyan government to ensure that funds are guided to areas that will have immediate gains for the poor.
Poverty maps not only identify the distribution of poor populations, but pinpoint places where development lags and highlight the location and condition of infrastructure and natural resource assets that are critical to poverty reduction programs.
WRI has helped design and support poverty mapping efforts in Kenya and Uganda. Kenya has used the maps to distribute critical budget resources to its Constituency Development Fund (CDF) which has allocated a total of approximately US$475 million for development and poverty reduction efforts. Before the maps, funds were based on population rather than on need. That has changed, with a greater share of funds going to formerly neglected rural areas.
Poverty maps were also used by the Kenya Water and Sanitation Program, a five-year, US$65.3 million effort to ensure resources reached poor communities with low access to safe water and sanitation.
A social entrepreneur invests the little working capital she has to bring solar electricity to a community that –like 1.2 billion people worldwide– lacks access to electricity. The community used to use dirty, expensive and choking kerosene for light to cook by and for children to learn by. The entrepreneur knows she can recoup her costs, because people are willing to pay for reliable, high-quality, clean energy – and it will be even less than what they used to pay for kerosene. Sounds like a good news story, right?
Three months later, the government utility extends the electrical grid to this same community, despite official plans showing it would take at least another four years. While this could be good news for the community, one unintended consequence is that this undermines the entrepreneur’s investment, wiping out their working capital, and deterring investors from supporting decentralized clean energy projects in other communities that lack access to electricity.
As the climate changes, the global community and national governments both need to take action to prevent the kind of humanitarian disaster underway In parts of the Horn of Africa. Early action can help communities confront climate change, take advantage of ecosystem services, and prevent future food-related tragedies due to drought and other extreme weather.
People relying on agriculture and livestock rearing for their livelihoods make up over seventy percent of the total population of east Africa. Over the last two years, the eastern part of the region has faced two consecutive failed rainy seasons. The UN reported that dry-lands of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia were facing "one of the driest years since 1950/51." This extreme lack of rain has reduced the ability of people in the region to grow their food. Pastures have dried up, making it impossible to sustain cattle. With animals and agriculture in jeopardy, the main sources of food and income for many in the region have been greatly threatened. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) declared a famine in parts of Somalia on July 28, 2011.
Two weeks ago, WRI and Kenyan partners Upande Ltd., Wildlife Clubs of Kenya, Jacaranda Designs Ltd., and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) launched Virtual Kenya, an interactive website designed to improve Kenyans’ access to spatial information and cutting-edge mapping technologies. At the launch event, two Kenyan government officials committed to support the project and contribute data, all in the name of increasing access to information and improving education, environmental management, and development planning in the country.
Spatial information – including where different populations live and where natural resources are located – is essential for sound development planning and decision-making. A new website launched today, Virtual Kenya, opens up a wealth of maps and spatial data about the country for citizens and students to use.