International project financing primarily intended to generate jobs and growth should not ignore social and environmental safeguards in the name of economic stimulus.
It may be counter-intuitive, but a global economic slowdown could help the United States and China work together on climate change.
The composition of BOP markets differs markedly across countries. Some, like those in the Ukraine, are concentrated in the upper income segments of the BOP.
In South Africa more than half the traffic on Vodacom’s mobile network in 2004 came not from its 8 million subscribers but from 4,400 entrepreneur-owned phone shops where customers rent access to ph
In Eastern Europe and Latin America all measured countries show a top-heavy BOP spending pattern, illustrated here by Russia.
The composition of BOP markets differs markedly across countries. Some, like Nigeria's, are concentrated in the lowest income segments of the BOP.
In Mexico, the BOP constitutes 75 percent of the population, representing aggregate income of $105 billion.
The BOP share of transportation spending is consistently high in Africa.
The median of annual BOP per household spending on health for Cameroon is $33.89.
In Cameroon, the ratio of average household ICT spending in the BOP3000 income segment to that in the BOP1000 segment is 27:1.