In Eastern Europe and Latin America all measured countries show a top-heavy BOP spending pattern, illustrated here by Russia.
The composition of BOP markets differs markedly across countries. Some, like Nigeria's, are concentrated in the lowest income segments of the BOP.
In Mexico, the BOP constitutes 75 percent of the population, representing aggregate income of $105 billion.
The BOP share of transportation spending is consistently high in Africa.
The median of annual BOP per household spending on health for Cameroon is $33.89.
In Cameroon, the ratio of average household ICT spending in the BOP3000 income segment to that in the BOP1000 segment is 27:1.
India’s BOP market for ICT is 51 percent urban, with urban BOP households outspending rural ones 3:1.
In Brazil, the BOP market for ICT is 97 percent urban, and average annual spending by urban BOP households ($203) is seven times that spent by rural BOP households.
Those in the BOP cannot join the global economy, and benefit from it, until they are connected to it.
In Latin America the BOP market is $509 billion and includes 360 million people, 70 percent of the population in the 21 countries surveyed.