The African BOP includes 486 million people in 22 surveyed counties---95 percent of the population in those countries.
Four billion people form the base of the economic pyramid (BOP)---those with annual incomes below $3,000 (in local purchasing power).
This analysis highlights differences between traditional development approach---focused on the very poor, less than $1/day---and market-based approach focused on the entire BOP.
"Low income" is not "no income".
Nine Caribbean sub-regions---Bahamian, Bermuda, Eastern Caribbean, Florida, Greater Antilles, Gulf of Mexico, Southern Caribbean, Southwestern Caribbean, and Western Caribbean.
When the four threats -- coastal development, sedimentation, marine-based pollution, and overfishing -- are integrated into the Reefs at Risk Threat Index, nearly two-thirds of the region's coral reef
Most reported observations of coral disease worldwide have been in the Caribbean.
Source: Global Coral Disease Database, United Nations Environment Programme -- World Conservation Monitoring Ce
Observations of coral bleaching in the Caribbean are widespread. Of the over 500 observations in recent decades, 24 were during the 1980s, over 350 during the 1990s, and over 100 since 2000.
Threats to coral reefs from overfishing were evaluated based on coastal population density adjusted by the shelf area (up to 30 m depth) within 30 km of the reef.
Threats to coral reefs from marine-based sources were evaluated based on distance to ports (stratified by size), intensity of cruise ship visitation, and distance to oil and gas infrastructure, proces
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