Many payments for watershed services share a common trait: they are investments in “green infrastructure” instead of “gray infrastructure.” In other words, they are investments in forests i
More than one-quarter of the world’s reefs are threatened by watershed-based pollution (including nutrient fertilizers, sediment, pesticides, and other polluted runoff from the land), with about 10
At present, local human activities (overfishing and destructive fishing, marine-based pollution and damage, coastal development, and watershed-based pollution) threaten an estimated 60 percent of the
Mapping of past thermal stress on coral reefs (1998–2007) suggests that almost 40 percent of reefs may have been affected by thermal stress, meaning they are located in areas where water temperature
Unsustainable fishing is the most pervasive of all local threats to coral reefs.
Reefs at risk from overfishing and destructive fishing.
Marine-based sources of pollution and damage threaten approximately 10 percent of reefs globally, with only about 1 percent at high threat.
Globally, more than 60 percent of the world’s coral reefs (about 150,000 sq km of reef) are threatened by local activities (overfishing and destructive fishing, marine-based pollution and damage, co
This figure provides a summary of the four individual local threats (overfishing and destructive fishing, marine-based pollution and damage, coastal development, and watershed-based pollution) and the
Approximately 370 observations of coral bleaching were reported globally between 1980 and 1997, while more than 3,700 were reported between 1998 and 2010.