Those in the BOP cannot join the global economy, and benefit from it, until they are connected to it.
In Latin America the BOP market is $509 billion and includes 360 million people, 70 percent of the population in the 21 countries surveyed.
The BOP market in Eastern Europe is $458 billion and includes 254 million people in 28 surveyed countries, 64 percent of the region's population with 36 percent of the region’s aggregate income.
The BOP market in Asia (including the Middle East) is by far the largest: 2.86 billion people in 19 surveyed countries, with an aggregate income of $3.47 trillion.
The African BOP includes 486 million people in 22 surveyed counties---95 percent of the population in those countries.
Four billion people form the base of the economic pyramid (BOP)---those with annual incomes below $3,000 (in local purchasing power).
This analysis highlights differences between traditional development approach---focused on the very poor, less than $1/day---and market-based approach focused on the entire BOP.
"Low income" is not "no income".
Spanning 90 million hectares, the forests of Indonesia constitute 10 percent of the world’s remaining tropical forests and provide
Potential “leveling” mechanisms to promote international harmonization of compliance costs.