The BOP market in Asia (including the Middle East) is by far the largest: 2.86 billion people in 19 surveyed countries, with an aggregate income of $3.47 trillion.
The African BOP includes 486 million people in 22 surveyed counties---95 percent of the population in those countries.
Four billion people form the base of the economic pyramid (BOP)---those with annual incomes below $3,000 (in local purchasing power).
This analysis highlights differences between traditional development approach---focused on the very poor, less than $1/day---and market-based approach focused on the entire BOP.
"Low income" is not "no income".
Spanning 90 million hectares, the forests of Indonesia constitute 10 percent of the world’s remaining tropical forests and provide
Potential “leveling” mechanisms to promote international harmonization of compliance costs.
Voice and Choice represents the culmination of several years of research, experimentation, and reform by governments, civil society organizations, and industry in implementing access to information, public participation, and access to justice in decisions that affect the environment.
This figure compares targets for legislative proposals of mandatory cap and trade programs for greenhouse gas emissions.
This figure depicts the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions budgets for the proposals over two time periods.