Coral reefs and mangroves in Belize.
Credit: EarthTrends, 2006 using data from FAO, 2006
The composition of BOP markets differs markedly across countries. Some, like those in the Ukraine, are concentrated in the upper income segments of the BOP.
In South Africa more than half the traffic on Vodacom’s mobile network in 2004 came not from its 8 million subscribers but from 4,400 entrepreneur-owned phone shops where customers rent access to ph
In Eastern Europe and Latin America all measured countries show a top-heavy BOP spending pattern, illustrated here by Russia.
The composition of BOP markets differs markedly across countries. Some, like Nigeria's, are concentrated in the lowest income segments of the BOP.
In Mexico, the BOP constitutes 75 percent of the population, representing aggregate income of $105 billion.
Sector markets for the 4 billion BOP consumers range widely in size.
The BOP share of transportation spending is consistently high in Africa.
The median of annual BOP per household spending on health for Cameroon is $33.89.