Threats to reefs from coastal development were estimated based on distance from cities, ports, airports, and dive tourism centers, as well as population density, population growth, and tourism growth in the area. For reefs inside marine protected areas (MPAs), management effectiveness was included as a factor mitigating threat.
(See Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean Box 3. Marine Protected Areas in Chapter 4 and Table A5: Management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Wider Caribbean in Appendix A.)
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