Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago are on the edge of the South American continental shelf. There is one fringing reef on the northeast coast of Trinidad and there are many patch reefs near the offshore islands, particularly around Tobago. Reef development around Trinidad is slight, largely as a result of the influence of the Orinoco River, which delivers huge volumes of sediment-laden fresh water. 
The Reefs at Risk analysis suggests that all the 40 sq km of reefs around Trinidad and Tobago are threatened by human activities. The most pervasive threats are overfishing and coastal development, each threatening nearly all reefs. Fishing is the mainstay of many coastal villages. The inshore artisanal fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago - which provide an estimated 80 percent of the annual national fisheries production - are considered to be under serious threat of overexploitation. Pollution from the land, which threatens over 85 percent of reefs, includes poorly treated sewage, domestic grey water, agricultural runoff, fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and chemicals. Marine-based pollution was not identified in the analysis as an important threat.
Buccoo Reef off southwest Tobago was declared a restricted area in 1973 under the Marine Areas (Preservation) Act and remains the only marine park in Trinidad and Tobago. Management plans formulated for Buccoo Reef Marine Park (1995) and Speyside Marine Area have not been implemented. Pot and spear fishing are not encouraged on the reefs, but there has been no attempt to reduce fishing.  The Buccoo reef system (7 sq km) is the largest coral reef around Tobago and is promoted as a major tourist attraction, which leading to rapid growth and development in tourism and related infrastructure. As a result, more hotels and guesthouses are being placed along the coast, and the expansion of residential development, has led to an increase in pollution from sewage effluent and grey water, causing macro-algal overgrowth of reefs.
 J. Garz