Climate change is taking its toll on ecosystems and the services that humans derive from them. Species are already migrating out of historic ranges to cooler climates. Habitats are becoming reduced as a result of temperature increases. Food chains have been dramatically altered, as species fail to adapt to climate change impacts. Further alterations in ecosystem provisioning services, including wood products, drinking water supply, and soil productivity can be expected as climate continues to change.
Ecosystem effects. Entire ecosystems (ecological systems including interlinked fauna, flora and the physical framework in which they live) are being affected by climate change. Plants and animals associated with certain geographic regions are moving – or dying. Observed changes are already significant; future changes are expected to be even more fundamental as species adapt to changing climatic conditions.
Ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life. With climate change, we can expect processes and services to change – often for the worse. Droughts, floods, and changing disease and pest vectors will all contribute to the reduction, leading to loss of food as well as other economic benefits.