World Resource Institute


This page lists the references used to identify coastal hypoxic and eutrophic areas that are featured in the interactive map, as well as works cited in the "About Eutrophication" section of this website.


Abadie, S.W. and M.A. Poirrier. 2000. "Increased density of large Rangia clams in Lake Pontchartrain after the cessation of shell dredging." Journal of Shellfish Research 19: 481-485.

Abe, J., J. Wellens-Mensah, O.S. Diallo, and C. Mbuyil Wa Mpoyi. 2003. Global International Waters Assessment Guinea Current, GIWA Regional assessment 42. University of Kalmar on behalf of United Nations Environment Programme.

Abril, G., H. Etcheber, P.L. Hir, P. Bassoullet, B. Boutier, and M. Frankignoulle. 1999. "Oxic/anoxic oscillations and organic carbon mineralization in an estuarine maximum turbidity zone (The Gironde, France)." Limnology and Oceanography 44: 1304-1315.

Abril, G, H. Etcheber, B. Delille, M. Frankignoulle, and A.V. Borges. 2003. "Carbonate dissolution in the turbid and eutrophic Loire estuary." Marine Ecology Progress Series 259: 129-138.

Agenzia Regionale Prevenzione e Ambiente dell’ Emilia-Romagna (ARPA) – Struttura Oceanografica Daphne. 2005. “Eutrofizzazione Delle Acque Costiere dell'Emilia-Romagna / Rapporto 2005 (In Italian).”

Ærtebjerg, G., J.H. Andersen, and O.S. Hansen. 2003. Nutrients and Eutrophication in Danish Marine Waters: A Challenge for Science and Management. Ministry of the Environment Department of Marine Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute.

Ahern, K.S, C.R. Ahern, and J.W. Udy. 2007. “Nutrient additions generate prolific growth of Lyngbya majuscule (cyanobacteria) in field and bioassay experiments.” Harmful Algae 6: 134-151.

Ahern, K.S, C.R. Ahern, and J.W. Udy. 2008. “In situ field experiment shows Lyngbya majuscule (cyanobacterium) growth stimulated by added iron, phosphorus and nitrogen.” Harmful Algae 7: 389-404.

Ahmed, M.H., N. Donia, and M.A. Fahmy. 2006. "Eutrophication assessment of Lake Manzala, Egypt using geographical information systems (GIS) techniques." Journal of Hydroinformatics 8: 101-109.

Aleksandrov, S.V. 2010. “Biological production and eutrophication of Baltic Sea estuarine ecosystems: The Curonian and Vistula Lagoons.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 61: 205-210.

Allen, J.R., D.J. Slinn, T.M. Shammon, R.G. Hartnoll and S.J. Hawkins. 1998. "Evidence for eutrophication of the Irish Sea over four decades." Limnology and Oceanography 43: 1970-1974.

Alo, B., B. Orgu, and A. Abayomi. 2010. "Low sub-surface harmattan season hypoxia events in the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria." European Journal of Scientific Research 40: 279-286.

Alve, E. 1995. "Benthic foraminiferal distribution and recolonization of formerly anoxic environments in Dramrnensfjord, southern Norway." Marine Micropaleontology 25: 169-186.

Andersin, A.B., J. Lassig, L. Parkkonen, and H. Sandler. 1978. "The decline of macrofauna in the deeper parts of the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Finland." Kieler Meeresforschungen, Sonderheft 4: 23-52.

Andersin, A.-B. and H. Sandler. 1991. "Macrobenthic fauna and oxygen deficiency in the Gulf of Finland." Memoranda Soc Fauna Flora Fennica 67: 3-10.

Anderson, T.H. and G.T. Taylor. 2001. "Nutrient pulses, plankton blooms, and seasonal hypoxia in western Long Island Sound." Estuaries 24: 228-243.

Andrews, M.J. and D.G. Rickard. 1980. "Rehabilitation of the inner Thames estuary." Marine Pollution Bulletin 11: 327–332.

Anne Arundel County, Maryland, Department of Public Works. 2008. “Onsite Sewage Disposal System (OSDS) Evaluation Study.”

Anonymous. 2006. The Benefits and the Challenges of Linked Coastal and River Basin Management, Case Studies. Preliminary Draft Report 13-10-2006. 89 p.

Appeltans, W., A. Hannouti1, S. Van Damme, K. Soetaert, R. Vanthomme, and M. Tackx. 2003. "Zooplankton in the Schelde estuary (Belgium/The Netherlands). The distribution of Eurytemora affinis: effect of oxygen?" Journal of Plankton Research 25: 1441–1445.

Arai, M.N. 2001. "Pelagic coelenterates and eutrophication: a review." Hydrobiologia 451: 69-87, 2001.*

Araújo, F.G., R.G. Bailey, and W.P. Williams. 1999. "Spatial and temporal variations in fish populations in the upper Thames estuary." Journal of Fish Biology 55: 836-853

Arntz, W. 1981. "Zonation and dynamics of macrobenthos biomass in an area stressed by oxygen deficiency." In: Stress effects on natural ecosystems. G.W. Barrett and R. Rosenberg, eds. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 215-225.

Arvanitidis, C., D. Koutsoubas, C. Dounas, and A. Eleftheriou. 1999. "Annelid fauna of a Mediterranean Lagoon (Gialova Lagoon, south-west Greece): Community structure in a severely fluctuating environment." Journal of the Marine Biological Association, UK 1999: 849-856.

Asian Development Bank (ADB). 2003. “Suva-Nausori water supply and sewerage project in the Republic of the Fiji Islands.”

Auer, Martin T., Lisa M. Tomlinson, Scott N. Higgins, Sairah Y. Malkin, E. Todd Howell, Harvey A. Bootsma, Great Lakes Cladophora in the 21st century: same algae—different ecosystem, Journal of Great Lakes Research, Volume 36, Issue 2, June 2010, Pages 248-255, ISSN 0380-1330, 10.1016/j.jglr.2010.03.001.(

Auffrey, L.M., S.M.C. Robinson, and M.A. Barbeau. 2004. "Effect of green macroalgal mats on burial depth of soft-shelled clams Mya arenaria." Marine Ecology Progress Series 278: 193–203.

Aure, J., D. Danielssen, and R. Sætre. 1996. "Assessment of eutrophication in Skagerrak coastal waters using oxygen consumption in fjordic basins." ICES Journal of Marine Science 53: 589–595.

Australian Water., Coastal Studies PTY LTD. and J.H. & E.S. Laxton PTY LTD. “Lake MacQuaire Estuary Process Study – Volume 1-Report.” AWACS Report No. 94/25.

Aviles, A. and X, Niell. 2007. “The Control of a Small Dam in Nutrient Inputs to a Hypertrophic Estuary in a Mediterranean Climate.” Water Air Soil Pollution 180: 87-108.



Baden, S.P., L.O. Loo, L. Pihl, and R. Rosenberg. 1990a. "Effects of eutrophication on benthic communities including fish - Swedish west coast." Ambio 19: 113-122.

Baden, S.P., L. Pihl, and R. Rosenberg. 1990b. "Effects of oxygen depletion on the ecology, blood physiology and fishery of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus." Marine Ecology Progress Series 67: 141-155.

Balls, P.W., N. Brockie, J. Dobson, and W. Johnston. 1996. "Dissolved oxygen and nitrification in the upper Forth Estuary during summer (1982–92): Patterns and trends." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 42: 117-134.

Bakan, G. and H. Buyukgungor. 2000. "The Black Sea." Marine Pollution Bulletin 41: 24-43.

Balkas, T., G. Dechev, R. Mihnea, O. Serbanescu, and U. Unlueata. 1990. State of the Marine Environment in the Black Sea Region. UNEP Regional Seas Reports Studies No. 124. 41 p.

Balkis, N. 2003. "The effect of Marmara (IIzmit) earthquake on the chemical oceanography of IIzmit Bay, Turkey." Marine Pollution Bulletin 46: 865-878.

Bange, H.W., K. Bergmann, H.P. Hansen, A. Kock, R. Koppe, F. Malien, and C. Ostrau. 2010. "Dissolved methane during hypoxic events at the Boknis Eck time series station (Eckernf¨orde Bay, SW Baltic Sea)." Biogeosciences 7: 1279-1284.

Barbieri, E., Falzano, L., Fiorentini, C., Pianetti, A., Baffone, W., Fabbri, A., Matarrese, P., Casieri, A., Katouli, M., Kuhn, I., Mollby, R., Bruscolini, F. and G, Donelli. 1999. “Occurrence, Diversity, and Pathogenicity of Halophilic Vibrio spp. And Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae from Estuarine Waters along the Italian Adriatic Coast.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(6): 2748-2753.

Barmawidjaja, D.M., G.J. Van Der Zwaan, F.J. Jorissen, and S. Puskaric. 1995. "150 years of eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Evidence from a benthic formaminiferal record." Marine Geology 122: 367–384.

Bauman, A.G., Burt, J.A., Feary, D.A., Marquis, E. and Usseglio, P. 2010. “[Tropical harmful algal blooms: An emerging threat to coral reef communities?] (” Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 2117-2122.

Becker, A., L.J.B. Laurenson, and K. Bishop. 2009. "Artificial mouth opening fosters anoxic conditions that kill small estuarine fish." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 82(4): 566-572.

Bentley, S.J. and C.A. Nittrouer. 1999. "Physical and biological influences on the formation of sedimentary fabric in an oxygen-restricted depositional environment: Eckernfoerde Bay, Southwestern Baltic Sea." Palaios 14.

Benoit, P., Y. Gratton, and A. Mucci. 2006. "Modeling of dissolved oxygen levels in the bottom waters of the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary: Coupling of benthic and pelagic processes." Marine Chemistry 102: 13-32.

Berezina, N.A. 2008. "Spatial distribution of macrofauna in a littoral zone with drifting macroalgae in the Neva estuary." Estonian Journal of Ecology 57: 198-213.

Bergondo, D.L., D.R. Kester, H.E. Stoffel, and W.L. Woods. 2005. "Time-series observations during the low sub-surface oxygen events in Narragansett Bay during summer 2001." Marine Chemistry 97: 90-103.

Bernal, M.C., L.M. Londono, W. Troncoso, P.C. Sierra-Correa, and F.A. Arias-Isaza. 2004. Global International Waters Assessment: Caribbean Sea/Small Islands, GIWA Regional Assessment 3a. United Nations Environment Programme.

Billon, G., B. Ouddane, P. Recourt, and A. Boughriet. 2002. "Depth variability and some geochemical characteristics of Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Sr, S, P, Cd and Zn in anoxic sediments from Authie Bay (Northern France)." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 55: 167-181.

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Boadi, K.O. and M. Kuitunen. 2002. "Urban waste pollution in the Korle Lagoon, Accra, Ghana." The Environmentalist 22: 301-309.

Boesch D.F., R.B. Brinsfield, and R.E. Magnien. 2001. "Chesapeake Bay eutrophication: Scientific understanding, ecosystem restoration, and challenges for agriculture." Journal of Environmental Quality 30: 303-320.

Bock, M.T., B.S. Miller, and A.W. Bowman. 1999. "Assessment of eutrophication in the Firth of Clyde: Analysis of coastal water data from 1982 to 1996." Marine Pollution Bulletin 38: 222-231.

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Borja, Á., I. Muxika, and J. Franco. 2006. "Long-term recovery of soft-bottom benthos following urban and industrial sewage treatment in the Nervión estuary (southern Bay of Biscay)." Marine Ecology Progress Series 313: 43–55.

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Boyer, J.N. and R.D. Jones. 2002. “A view from the bridge: External and internal forces affecting the ambient water quality of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.” In J. W. Porter and K. G. Porter (eds.), Linkages between ecosystems: the South Florida Hydroscape. St. Lucie Press.

Brearley, A. 2005. Ernest Hodgkin’s Swanland: Estuaries and Coastal Lagoons of South-western Australia. Crawley, Australia: University of Western Australia Press, 550 p.

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Bricker, S., B. Longstaff, W. Dennison, A. Jones, K. Boicourt, C. Wicks, and J. Woerner. 2007. Effects of Nutrient Enrichment In the Nation’s Estuaries: A Decade of Change. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 26. National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Silver Spring, MD, p. 328.

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Brongersma-Sanders, M. 1957. "Mass mortality in the sea." In: Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology, Volume 1. J.W. Hedgpeth, ed. Baltimore: Waverly Press, pp. 941-1010.

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Buchan, L.A.J. and P.J. Randall. 2003. "Assessment of Stream Ecosystem Functions for the Coyote Creek Watershed: Coyote Creek Watershed Integrated Pilot Assessment Final Report." Prepared for the Santa Clara Valley Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention Program.

Bukharitsin, P.I. and Luneva, Z.D. 1994. "Water quality characteristics of the lower Volga reaches and the northern Caspian Sea." Water Resources 21: 410-416.

Bundy, A. and D. Pauly. 2001. “Selective harvesting by small-scale fisheries: ecosystem analysis of San Miguel Bay, Philippines.” Fisheries Research 53: 263-281.

Burgess, Robert. 2009. Development of Revised Dissolved Oxygen Crigeria for Oso Bay and Laguna Madre. Water Quality Standards Group, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Burnett, L.E. 1997. "The challenges of living in hypoxic and hypercapnic aquatic environments." American Zoologist 37: 633-640.

Buysse D., J. Coeck, and J. Maes. 2008. "Potential re-establishment of diadromous fish species in the River Scheldt (Belgium)." Hydrobiologia 602: 155-159.

Buzzelli, C., A.F. Holland, D.M. Sanger, P.C. Conrads. 2007. "Hydrographic characterization of two tidal creeks with implications for watershed land use, flushing times, and benthic production." Estuaries and Coasts 30(2): 321-330.



Caumette, P. and B. Baleux. 1980. "Etude des eaux rouges dues ‘a la prolife’ration des bacte’ries photosynthe’tiques sulfo-oxydantes dans l'e’tang du Pre’vost, lagune saumatre me’diterrane’enne." Marine Biology 56: 183-194.

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Cloern, J.E., K.A. Hieb, T. Jacobson, B. Sansό, E. Di Lorenzo, M.T. Stacey, J.L. Largier, W. Meiring, W.T. Peterson, T.M. Powell, M. Winder, and A.D. Jassby. 2010. “Biological communities in San Francisco Bay track large-scale climate forcing over the North Pacific.” Geophysical Research Letters 37: L21602.

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