World Resource Institute

Europe & Mediterranean

Europe (General)

Websites

Bringing Land and Sea Together (BLAST) Project
BLAST is a regional project for maritime safety in the North Sea region. Over three years, 16 partners from six countries, including governmental organisations, universities and private companies will collaborate to harmonise and integrate land and sea data. BLAST is funded by the European Union as part of the Interreg IVB North Sea Region Programme. The project starts in 2009 and will be completed in 2012.

Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Sciences (CEFAS)
CEFAS is an applied marine research centre, helping to shape and implement policy at the UK and EU through investigation in different areas including: sustainable fisheries management, marine biodiversity and habitats, marine spatial planning and environmental licensing, etc. CEFA’s website provides publications, annual reports, information on current projects and data detailing ocean parameters (e.g. waves, sea surface temperature, salinity) obtained from remote and in-situ automated sources as well as access to data of fisheries and aquatic animal diseases.

Establishment of Arctic Regional Ocean Observing System (ROOS)
ROOS is a member agency of the European Global Ocean Observing System (EuroGOOS) (see below) responsible for the study of the Arctic Ocean. The website provides access to daily and long-term/seasonal observations and forecasts of a number of physico-chemical ocean parameters (e.g. ice concentration/extent, salinity, sea surface temperature) in different parts of the Arctic Ocean. Relevant papers and projects are also available.

European Global Ocean Observing System (EuroGOOS)
EuroGOOS is an association of governmental agencies and research organizations working with European-scale operational oceanography in conjunction with the intergovernmental Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Besides providing general information and publications on the EuroGOOS programme, the website also provides links to several member (regional) agencies of EuroGOOS (listed in this section). These agencies provide regional nowcasts/forecasts, oceanographic databases, and bathymetric maps of relevance to those involved with study/management of coastal systems.

French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER) (Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer)
Information regarding France’s coastal seas, aquaculture production, fisheries resources, oceanography, etc, is given in this website. Publications, annual reports, access to software and databases produced and maintained by IFREMER is also provided.

European Environment Agency
This site provides data, maps, and publications on coastal eutrophication and hypoxia as well as a number of other environmental topics.

Ireland-Biscay-Iberia Regional Operational Oceanographic System (IBI-ROOS)
IBI-ROOS is a member agency of European Global Ocean Observing System (EuroGOOS) responsible for the study of the Iberian-Biscay-Irish maritime region. The website provides access to observations/forecasts of a number of physico-chemical (e.g. temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen) and biological (e.g. chlorophyll a) sea parameters at different spatio-temporal scales in the region.

French ERS Processing and Archiving Facility (CERSAT) (Centre ERS d'Archivage et de Traitement)
CERSAT is managed by IFREMER and provides satellite imagery obtained from earth observation satellites. The nature of the data - used to infer sea surface state - is of relevance to the oceanographic community and to those involved in the research/management of coastal systems.

French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER) (Institut français de recherche pour l’exploitation de la mer)
Information regarding France’s coastal seas, aquaculture production, fisheries resources, oceanography, etc, is given in this website. Publications, annual reports, access to software and databases produced and maintained by IFREMER is also provided.

North-west Shelf Operational Oceanographic System (NOOS
NOOS is a member agency of the European Global Ocean Observing System (EuroGOOS) responsible for the study of the North Sea. The website provides access to observations/forecasts of a number of physical (e.g. sea surface temperature, waves) and cultural (e.g. discharges) parameters at different time scales in the North Sea. Access to models and country specific data as well as relevant papers and projects is also available.

OSPAR For the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-east Atlantic
The OSPAR Convention guides international cooperation for protection of the North-East Atlantic Ocean.

SeaDataNet
SeaDataNet has a marine data management infrastructure for the management of large and diverse sets of in situ and remote sensing data of seas and oceans.

SIMORC: System of Industry MetOcean Data for Offshore and Research Communities
SIMORC is a database of metocean data, including sea level, current, sea temperature, conductivity, and waves.

The Tri-lateral Cooperation for the Protection of the Wadden Sea
Since 1978, the responsible ministries of the The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany have been working together on the protection and conservation of the Wadden Sea covering management, monitoring and research, as well as political matters. This website provides information on policies, management and monitoring.

Publications

A participatory approach for Integrated River Basin Management in the Elbe catchment
Nunneri, C. and J, Hofmann. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 62: 521-537, 2005.

Application and sensitivity testing of a eutrophication assessment method on coastal systems in the United States and European Union
Ferreira, J.G., Bricken, S.B. and T.C, Simas. Journal of Environmental Management 82: 433–445, 2007.

Assessing the effect of nutrient mitigation measures in the watersheds of the Southern Bight of the North Sea
Thieu, V., Garnier, J. and G, Billen. Science of the Total Environment 408(6): 1245-1255, 2010.

Assessment of the phytoplankton ecological status in the Basque coast (northern Spain) according to the European Water Framework Directive
Revilla, M., Franco, J., Bald, J., Laza, A., Seoane, S. and V, Valencia. Journal of Sea Research 61(1-2): 60-67.

Current Status of Eutrophication in the Belgian Coastal Zone
Rousseau, V., Lancelot, C. and Cox, D. Belgian Science Policy Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, 2006.

Environmental Impact Study of Projects Affecting the Quality of Marine Ecosystems (Gulf of Trieste
Cescon, B., Drago, M., Gianfelici, F. and Lovenitti, L. Croatia Chemica Acta 71(2): 361-389, 1998.

Estuarine eutrophication in the UK: current incidence and future trends
Maier, G., Nimmo-Smith, R.J., Glegg, G.A., Tappin, A.D. and P.J. Worsfold. Aquatic Conservation: Marine Freshwater Ecosystems 19: 43-56, 2009.

Eutrophication in Europe’s Coastal Waters
Ærtebjerg, G., Carstensen, J., Dahl, K., Hansen, J., Nygaard, K., Rygg, B., Sorensen, K., Severinsen, G., Casartelli, S., Schrimpf, W., Schiller, C., Druon, J.N. and A, Kunitzer. European Environment Agency, 2001.
The main objective of this report is to evaluate the causes, state and development of eutrophication in European coastal waters, and to identify areas where more monitoring data are needed to improve assessment. In addition, a first evaluation is made of the use of a tropical index for water quality assessment and the use of remote sensing as a eutrophication monitoring tool in northern seas.

Eutrophication in Europe’s coastal waters - Topic report 7
Ærtebjerg, G et al. European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen, 2001.

Evaluation of eutrophication in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, Portugal
Newton, A., Icely, J.D., Falcao, M., Nobre, A., Nunes, J.P., Ferreira, J.G. and C, Vale. Continental Shelf Research 23: 1945–1961, 2003.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 11 – Barents Sea
Matishov, G., Golubeva, N., Titova, G., Sydnes, A. and B, Voegele. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2004.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 13 – Faroe Plateau
Pedersen, S.A., Madsen, J. and Dyhr-Nielsen, M. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2004.

Green Tides on the Brittany Coasts
Charlier, R.H., P. Morand, C.W. Finkl, and A. Thys. Environmental Research, Engineering and Management 3:52-59, 2007.
This paper reviews and summarizes the conclusions of surveys done on eutrophication and bioconversion of seaweeds in the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of Europe. This research has led to a number of proposals to alleviate the accumulation of stranded algae and their disposal or utilization in agriculture, industry or energy production. The paper also draws parallels to conditions in south-eastern Florida.

Guidance on Typology, Reference Conditions and Classification Systems for Transitional and Coastal Waters
COAST. European Union Common Implementation Strategy Working Group 2.4, 2003.

Identification of Sensitive Areas and Vulnerable Zones In Transitional and Coastal Portuguese Systems
Ferreira, J.G., Simas, T., Nobre, A., Silva, M.C., Schifferegger, K., and J, Lencart-Silva. Application of the United States National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment to the Minho, Lima, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tagus, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana systems INAG/IMAR, 2003.

Monitoring of coastal and transitional waters under the E.U. Water Framework Directive
Ferreira, J.G., Vale, C., Soares, C.V., Salas, F., Stacey, P.E., Bricker, S.B., Silva, M.C. and J.C. Marques. Environmental Monitoring Assessment 135: 195-216, 2007.

Nutrient budgets for European seas: A measure of the effectiveness of nutrient reduction policies
Artioli, Y., Friedrich, J., Gilber, A.J., McQuatters-gollop, A., Mee, L.D., Vermaat, J.E., Wulff, F., Humborg, C., Palmeri, L. and F, Pollehne. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56(9): 1609-1617, 2008.

OSPAR Integrated Report 2003 on the Eutrophication Status of the OSPAR Maritime Area Based Upon the First Application of the Comprehensive Procedure
OSPAR Commission, 2003.

Past, present and future nutrient loads of the North Sea: Causes and consequences
Vermaat, J.E., McQuatters-Gollop, A., Eleveld, M.A. and A.J, Gilbert. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 80(1): 53-59, 2008.

Submarine Groundwater Discharge as a nitrogen source to the Ria Formosa studied with seepage meters
Leote, C., Ibanhez, J.S. and C, Rocha. Biogeochemistry 88: 185-194, 2008.

Response of intertidal macrobenthic communities to long term human induced changes in the Eo estuary (Asturias, Spain): Implications for environmental management
de Paz, L., Neto, J.M., Marques, J.C. and A.J, Laborda. Marine Environmental Research 66(2): 288-299.

The Changing Faces of Europe’s Coastal Areas
European Union Environment Agency (EEA), 2006

The European Nitrogen Assessment - Sources, Effects and Policy Perspectives
Sutton, M.A., Howard, C.M., Erisman, J.W., Billen, G. and A, Bleeker. (eds). Cambridge University Press, 2011.

The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas
Dauvin, J.C. Marine Pollution Bulletin 57(1-2): 22-40, 2007.

The present environmental scenario of the Nador Lagoon (Morocco)
Ruiz, F., Abad, M., Olias, M., Galan, E., Gonzales, I., Aguila, E., Hamoumi, N., Pulido, I. and M, Cantano. Environmental Research 102(2): 215-229, 2006.

The science and management of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea: Natural history, present threats and future challenges
Ducrotoy, J.P. and M, Elliot. Marine Pollution Bulletin 57(1-5): 8-21, 2006.

Water Quality in Ireland 2004-2006
Clabby, K.J., C. Bradley, M. Craig, D. Daly, J. Lucey, M. McGarrigle, S. O’Boyle, D. Tierney, and J. Bowman. Environmental Protection Agency, 2008.
This report reviews water quality throughout Ireland from 2004 to 2006. It is the latest in a series of comprehensive three-year reviews of water quality in Ireland that have been undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

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Baltic Sea

Websites

Baltic Operational Oceanographic System (BOOS)
BOOS is a member agency of the European Global Ocean Observing System (EuroGOOS) responsible for the study of the Baltic Sea. The website provides access to observations/forecasts of a number of physico-chemical (e.g. salinity, sea surface temperature, currents) and biological (e.g. algae) parameters at different time scales in the Baltic. Access to models and country specific data as well as relevant papers and projects is also available.

Baltic Sea Parliamentary Conference
The Baltic Sea Parliamentary Conference is scheduled to convene August 29th, 2010 and will be centered around: cooperation in the Baltic Sea region, impacts of climate change on biodiversity in the region, and creating an area of peace and security in the region.

Baltic Eutrophication Regional Network
BERNET is a network co-operation between seven regions from seven countries around the Baltic Sea.

BONUS for the future of the Baltic Sea
BONUS is an information portal that offers links to marine conventions, policies, and publications involving the Baltic Sea.

HELCOM
Also known as the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM works to protect the Baltic Sea through intergovernmental co-operation between Denmark, Estonia, the European Community, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Sweden. The website provides assessments and indicators, manuals and guidelines, data and maps, and publications regarding the issue.

MARE Research Program on Baltic Sea Environmental Issues
MARE, an eight-year research program funded by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, MISTRA, works with decision-makers involved in the Baltic Sea to define cost-effective measures to improve environmental quality.

National Environment Research Institute (DK) Aquatic Environment Page
NERI is part of the Aarhus University, and undertakes consulting work to establish a scientific foundation for environmental policy decisions.

Nutrients and Eutrophication in Danish Marine Waters
This website is based off a report written about the challenges of managing nutrient pollution in Danish marine waters.

Publications

Airborne Nitrogen Loads to the Baltic Sea
Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, 2005.
This report by the Helsinki Commission discusses the various sources of nitrogen that lead to atmospheric deposition to the Baltic Sea.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 17 – Baltic Sea
Lääne, A., Kraav, E. and G, Titov. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2005.

Biological production and eutrophication of Baltic Sea estuarine ecosystems: The Curonian and Vistula Lagoons
Aleksandrov, S.V. Marine Pollution bulletin 61(4-6): 205-210, 2010.

Effects of Climate Change on Eutrophication in the Northern Baltic Sea
Kiirikki, M. World Wide Fund (WWF), Sweden, 2008.

Effects of land use, urbanization, and climate variability on coastal eutrophication in the Baltic Sea
Savage, C., Leavitt, P. and R, Elmgren. Limnology and Oceanography 55(3): 1033-1046, 2010.

Effects of Eutrophication on Benthic Communities including Fish: Swedish West Coast.
Baden, S.P., L. Loo, L. Pihl, and R. Rosenberg. Ambio 19(3): 113-122, 1990.
This paper discusses the effects of eutrophication in shallow areas of Southern Sweden on the native benthic communities depending on the amount of available oxygen.

Eutrophication Status of the Norweigian Skagerrak Coast
Molvær,J. W. Eikrem, J. Magnusson, A. Pedersen, and T. Tjomsl. The Norweigian Institute for Water Research, 2007.
This report represents the second effort to classify the Norweigian Skagerrak coast under the Common Procedure for the Identification of Eutrophication Status of the Maritime Area of the Oslo and Paris Commissions on its coastal waters.

Long-Term Changes and Impacts of Hypoxia in Danish Coastal Waters
Conley, D.J., Carstensen, J., Ertebjerf, G., Christenses, P.B., Dalsgaard, T., Jorgen, L.S., Hansen, S. and A.B, Josefson. Ecological Applications 17(5): 165-184, 2007.

Influence of EU policy on agricultural nutrient losses and the state of receiving surface waters in Finland
Ekholm, P., Granlund, K., Kauppila, P., Mitikka., Niemi, J., Rankinen, K., Raike, A. and J, Rasanen. Agricultural and Food Science 16: 282-300, 2007.

Assessment of recent eutrophication and climate influence in the Archipelago Sea based on the subfossil diatom record
Tuovinen, N., Weckstrom, K. and J.J. Virtasalo. Journal of Palaeolimnology 44: 95-108, 2010.

Long-term monitoring of buffer zone efficiency under different cultivation techniques in boreal conditions
Uusi-Kamppa, J. and L. Jauhiainen. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 137: 75-85, 2010.
The journal article gives an introduction to the role and use of riparian vegetation buffer zones in reducing nutrients phosphorous and suspended solids inputs into watercourses. The study consists of a long-term monitoring effort on the competence of different (in plant composition) types of buffers in retaining nutrients and suspended solids. As the title suggests there is an emphasis on areas with a boreal climate.

Nutrients and Eutrophication in Danish Marine Waters: A Challenge for Science and Management
Ærtebjerg,G., J.H. Andersen, and O.S. Hansen. Ministry of the Environment.
This report describes and documents the effects and degree of nutrient enrichment and eutrophication status in all Danish Marine Waters by addressing the causes, actual observed effects, and temporal trends.

The Invisible Threat to the Baltic Sea: Spring Algae Blooms
WWF Baltic Ecoregion Program. 2009.

The science and management of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea: Natural history, present threats and future challenges
Ducrotoy, J.P. and M, Elliot. Marine Pollution Bulletin 57(1-5): 8-21, 2006.

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Black Sea & Marmara Sea

Websites

Black Sea Web
The Black Sea Web Project is a joint-project between local partners from the Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Romania and EC-partners from the Netherlands and Denmark. The project focuses on strengthening of environmental management for the Black Sea Region by providing data and other resources.

Black Sea Scientific Network (Black Sea Scene)
This is an EU funded project that exists to provide updated data on the current conditions of the Black Sea.

[International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River(ICPDR)]http://www.icpdr.org/icpdr-pages/home.htm)
The ICPDR is based on the Danube River Protection Convention, which was created to facilitate cooperation and transboundary water management. The website provides background on the river basin, outlines the main issues facing the basin and gives information about the major sectors contributing to pollution.

[image seaofAzov.jpg align=right width=third Fig 1. Algal bloom in the Sea of Azov (Black Sea). Summer blooms are a typical feature in the Sea of Azov resulting from local hydrodynamics and nutrient discharges from the Don and Kuban Rivers. Further development of the agriculture sector in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus is expected to exacerbate eutrophic conditions in the Sea and other parts of the Black Sea.

Image Credit: NASA: Visible Earth]

Southern European Seas: Assessing and Modeling Ecosystem Changes (SESAME)
SESAME is a 4-year European Union funded interdisciplinary project designed to study the Mediterranean and Black Sea ecosystems and their abilities to provide services and goods whilst also assessing and predicting any changes in these regions.

The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution
The Commission was established after the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution and exists to provide access to updated information regarding the health of the Black Sea and activities occurring within the region.

Publications

Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A Brief Review
Nastasi, A. (FAO/GFCM). GFCM Workshop on Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, Istanbul, Turkey, 6th/9th October, 2010.

Eutrophication in the Black Sea region; Impact assessment and Causal chain analysis
Borvsova, O., Kondakov, A., Paleari, S., Rautalahti-Miettinen, E., Stolberg, F. and Daler, D. University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2005.

Evaluation of the impact from the black sea on the pollution of the Marmara Sea
Orhon, D. Water Science and Technology 32(7): 191-198, 1995.

Improvement of Romanian Marine Coastal Water Quality by Urban Sewage Treatment
Journal of Coastal Research 21(5): 977-981, 2005.

Overfishing drives a trophic cascade in the Black Sea
Daskalov, G.M. Marine Ecology Progress Series 225:53-63, 2002.

Long-term changes in fish abundance and environmental indices in the Black Sea
Daskalov, G.M. Marine Ecology Progress Series 255: 259-270, 2003.

Long-Term Impacts of Anthropogenic Forcing on the Black Sea Ecosystem
Oguz, T. Oceanography 18(2): 112-121, 2005.

Recovery or decline of the northwestern Black Sea: A societal choice revealed by socio-ecological modeling Eutrophication & Climate Change
Langmead, O., McQuatters-Gollop, A., Mee. L.D., Friedrich, J., Gilber, A.J., Gomoiu, M.T., Jackson, E.L., Knudsen, S., Minicheva, G. and V, Todorova. Ecological Modelling 220(21): 2927-2939, 2010.

Restoring the Black Sea in Times of Uncertainty
Mee, L.D., J. Friedrich, and M.T. Gomoju. Oceanography (18): 32-43, 2005.
This article examines the management systems in place in and surrounding the Black Sea, and addresses certain limiting scientific uncertainties.

The Black Sea--an Oxygen Poor Sea
Yu.P. Zaitsev, B.G. Alexandrov, and N.A. Berlinsky. European Environmental Agency. 2001.

Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts
Daskalov, G.M., Grishin, A.N., Rodionov, S. and Mihneva, V. PNAS 104(25): 10518–10523, 2007.

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Caspian Sea

Websites

CaspInfo
CaspInfo is a project under development that will make environmental data on the Caspian Sea available. This website was created with the help of the EU to strengthen data management infrastructure around the Caspian Sea.

Caspian Environment Programme
The CEP was created by the five Caspian Littoral States: Azerbaijan, I.R. Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan, to stop the deterioration of the Caspian Sea. The website offers news, publications, event information, and other resources regarding the environmental condition of the Caspian Sea.

Publications

Ecocide in the Caspian Sea
Henri, D. Nature 377: 673–674, 1995.

Environmental Issues of the Caspian
Zonn, I.S. Handbook of Environmental Chemistry 5(Part P): 223-242, 2005.

Environmental management of coastal regions in the Caspian Sea
Nouri, J., Karbassi, A.R. and s, Mirkia. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 5(1): 43-52, 2008.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 23 – Caspian Sea
Stolberg, F., Borvsova, O., Mitrofanov, I., Barannik, V. and Eghtesadi, P. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2006.

The Caspian Sea region: environmental change
Barannik, V., Borysova, O. and F, Stolberg. Ambio 33: 45–51, 2004.

Trophic status of the Iranian Caspian Sea based on water quality parameters and phytoplankton diversity
Nasrollahzadeh, H.S., Din, Z.B.,Foong, S.Y.and Makhlough, A. Continental Shelf Research 28: 1153– 1165, 2008.

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Mediterranean Sea

Websites

IOC Network on Harmful Algae in North Africa (HANA)
HANA is responsible for the study of harmful algae in North African countries. The organization is currently dedicated to the collection of regional material involving HABs. HANA’s websites offers general information on HABs, publications, information on events, and will in the near future provide a database with regional information on HABs.

Cyprus Oceanography Center
This website provides information on the major research areas of the institution and publications. The center is responsible for the sub-regional forecasting and observing systems developed for the eastern Mediterranean Sea (CYCOFOS and Bythos)(see below).

Cyprus Coastal Ocean Forecasting and Observing System (CYCOFOS)
The website provides access to the sub-regional forecasting and observing system of the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin. Access is available to forecasts of different meteorological and physico-chemical parameters across the regional sea and/or the entire Mediterranean and Black Sea.

[image Lagoons.jpg align=left width=250 Fig 2.Satellite image highlighting different semi-enclosed coastal systems in the Nile Delta. Here, agriculture and associated runoff are major threats to the productivity of these systems characterized by limited flushing (Click here for larger version).

Image Credit: NASA: Visible Earth | Oczkowski and Nixon, 2008]

Cyprus Oceanographic Online Database (BYTHOS)
The Website provides access to the BYTHOS database containing information on several physico-chemical and biological parameters of the waters of the Mediterranean spanning an extensive time frame.

Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR)
The HCMR is responsible for several scientific/technical research projects and monitoring in the Greek Seas. The website contains annual reports, publications, and links to databases including fisheries data, GIS/remote sensing data, and marine monitoring/meteorological data.

Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research (IOLR)
IOLR website contains general information on Israel’s marine and coastal environment (e.g. pollution, management, biodiversity), sustainable use of coastal resources, aquaculture, current research, etc. IOLR also manages Israel Marine Data Center (ISRAMAR) (see below).

Israel Marine Data Center (ISRAMAR)
ISRAMAR provides access to several datasets derived from data stations and research cruises. These include near real time, forecasts and archive data on physical, chemical, biological and geological parameters from the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Dead Sea.

Mediterranean Operational Oceanography Network (MOON)
MOON is a member agency of the European Global Ocean Observing System (EuroGOOS) responsible for the study of the Mediterranean Sea. The website provides access to observations/forecasts of a number of physico-chemical (e.g. salinity, sea surface temperature, and bathymetry) and biological parameters at different spatio-temporal scales in the Mediterranean. Access to models and regional specific data as well as relevant papers and projects is also available.

Southern European Seas: Assessing and Modeling Ecosystem Changes (SESAME)
SESAME is a 4-year European Union-funded interdisciplinary project designed to study the Mediterranean and Black Sea ecosystems and their abilities to provide services and goods whilst also assessing and predicting any changes in these regions.

Publications

III Annual Report on Urban Environmental Quality Edition 2006 – Summary
Italian Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), 2006.

A revisitation of TRIX for trophic status assessment in the light of the European Water Framework Directive: Application to Italian coastal waters
Pettine, M., Casentini, B. and S, Fazi. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54: 1413–1426, 2007.

Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A Brief Review
Nastasi, A. (FAO/GFCM). GFCM Workshop on Algal and Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, Istanbul, Turkey, 6th/9th October, 2010.

Approaches to the Assessment of Eutrophication in Mediterranean Coastal Waters (First Draft)
Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Review Meeting of MED POL Monitoring Activities and the use of indicators, Athens, 2007.

Assessment of the ecological status of transitional waters in Sicily (Italy): First characterisation and classification according to a multiparametric approach
Caruso, G., Leonardi, M., Monticelly, L.S., Decembrini, F., Azzaro, F., Crisafi, E., Zappala, G. and A, Bergamasco. Marine Pollution Bulletin (Article in Press), 2010.

Benthic communities along a littoral of the Central Adriatic Sea (Italy)
Sempruci, F., Boi, P., Manti, A., Harriague, A.C., Rocchi, M., Colantoni, P., Papa, S. and M, Balsamo. Helgoland Marine Research 64:101-115, 2010.

Circulation and nutrient modeling of Thermaikos Gulf, Greece
Nikolaidis, N.P., A.P. Karageorgis, V. Kapsimalis, G. Marconis, P. Drakopoulou, H. Kontoyiannis, E. Krasakopouou, A. Pavlidou, and K. Pagou. Journal of Marine Systems 60(1-2): 51-62, 2006.

Coastal waters monitoring data: frequency distributions of the principal water quality variables
Giovanardi, F., Finoia, M.G., Russo, S., Amori, M. and Di Lorenzo, B. Journal of Limonology 65(2): 65-82, 2006.

Environmental influences on the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton in North African coastal lagoons
Ramdani, M., Elkhiati, N., Flower, R.J., Thompson, J.R., Chouba, E.L., Kraiem, M.M., Avache, F. and M.H. Ahmed. Hydrobiologia 622: 113-131.

Eutrofizzazione Delle Acque Costiere dell'Emilia-Romagna / Rapporto 2005 (In Italian)
Agenzia Regionale Prevenzione e Ambiente dell’ Emilia-Romagna (ARPA) – Struttura Oceanografica Daphne, 2005.

Eutrophication in the Mediterranean Sea: Receiving Capacity and Monitoring Long-term Effects
Food and Agriculture Organization., United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). and University of Bologna (Italy). Unesco reports in marine science 49, Bologna, 1987. Report proceedings of a scientific workshop held in 1987 with an excellent overview of eutrophication/hypoxia issues in various Mediterranean bays.

Hypereutrophication events in the Ca’Pisani lagoons associated with intensive aquaculture
Sorokin, Y.L., Sorokin, P.Y. and Ravagnan, G. Hydrobiologia 571: 1-15, 2006.

Hypertrophic lagoon management by sediment disturbance
Lenzi, M., Birardi, G., Calzolai, R., Finonia, M.G., Marcone, F., Nocciolini, S., Roffilli, R., Sgroi, S. and D, Solari. Marine Pollution Bulletin 61(4-6): 189-197.

Impact on phytoplankton populations of sewage discharges in the Saronikos Gulf (West Aegean)
Friligos, N. Water Research 19(9): 1107-1118, 1985.

Increasing nutrient concentrations and the rise and fall of a coastal fishery; a review of data from the Nile Delta, Egypt
Oczkowski, A. and S, Nixon. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 77(3): 309-319, 2008.

Is the southeastern Adriatic Sea coastal strip an eutrophic area?
Marini, M., Grilli, F., Guarneri, A., Jones, B.H., Klajic, Z., Pinardi, N. and M, Sanxhaku. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 88: 395-406, 2010.

Model analyses of the future water quality of the eutrophicated Ghar El Melh lagoon (Northern Tunisia)
Rasmussen, E.K., Petersen, O.S., Thompson, J.R., Flower, R.J., Avache, F., Kraiem, M. and L, Chouba. Hydrobiologia 622: 173-193, 2009.

Monitoring of eutrophication and nutrient limitation in the Izmir Bay (Turkey) before and after Wastewater Treatment Plant
Kontas, A., Kucuksezgin, G., Altay, O. and Uluturhan, E. Environment International 29(8): 1057-1062, 2003.

Monitoring Programme for Coastal Waters (Malta) – 7th ed.
Axiak, V. Environmental Protection Directorate – Pollution Control Co-ordinating Unit (Malta Environment and Planning Authority), May 2004.

North African wetland lakes: characterization of nine sites included in the CASSARINA Project
Ramdani, M., Flower, R.J., Elkhiati, N., Kraiem, M.M., Fathi, A.A., Birks, H.H. and T.S. Patrick. Aquatic Ecology 35: 281-302, 2001.

Nutrient Bioaccumulation in Phragmites australis: Management Tool for Reduction of Pollution in the Mar Menor
Ruiz, M. and J, Velasco. Water Air Soil Pollution 205: 173-185, 2010.

On the distribution of zooplankton assemblages in Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt
Zakaria, H.Y. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 33(1): 238-256, 2007.

Lagoon of Marano (Background)
Ianni, E. In: PhD Thesis by Elena Ianni, Department of Biology – University of Trieste, 2007.

Loading of nutrient from a land-based fish farm (Orbetello, Italy) at different times
Porrello, S., Lenzi, M., Ferrari, G., Persia, E., Savelli, F. and P, Tomassetti. Aquaculture International 13: 97–108, 2005.

PAP/RAC: Coastal Area Management in the Maltese Islands
UNEP-MAP - Priority Actions Programme Regional Activity Centre, Split, 2005.

Priority Issues in the Mediterranean Environment
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) – European Environment Agency (EEA), 2006.
This study examines the major environmental threats to the Mediterranean coastal environment by country.

Replacing the Nile: Are Anthropogenic Nutrients Providing the Fertility once Brought to the Mediterranean by a Great River?
Nixon, S.W. Ambio 32 (1): 30-39, 2003.

Simple tools for assessing water quality and trophic status in transitional water ecosystems
Giordani, G., Saldivar, J.M. and P. Viaroli. Ecological Indicators 9: 982-991, 2009.
This article deals with the development of an index used to assess the trophic status of transitional water bodies. The index takes into consideration different factors in order to classify aquatic ecosystems. These include causes (inorganic nutrients), key biological components (primary producers) and indicators of effects eutrophication (oxygen). The study is of relevance to Southern Europe as the index was tested and validated in a number of water bodies in the region.

State of the Environment Report 2005 Sub-Report 7: Waters (Maltese Islands)
Malta Environment & Planning Authority (MEPA), January 2006.

The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats
Coll, M, et al. PloS ONE 5(8), e11842, 2010.

The Case of Sarno River (Southern Italy). Effects of geomorphology on the environmental impacts (8 pp)
De Pippo, T., Donadio, C., Guida, M. and C, Petrosino. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 13(3): 184-191, 2006.

The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication
Lloret, J. and Arnaldo, Marin. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58(12): 1827-1834, 2009.

Trophic conditions of marine coastal waters: experience in applying the Trophic Index TRIX to two areas of the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas
Giovanardi, f. and R.A. Vollenweider. Journal of Limnology 63(2): 199-218, 2004.

Water characteristics of Alexandria hot spots
Nessim, R.B., M.S. Masoud, and N.N. Maximous. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 31: 25-37, 2005.

Water quality trends in a coastal lagoon impacted by non-point source pollution after implementation of protective measures
Gikas, G.D., Yiannakopoulou, T. and V.A, Tsihrintzis. Hydrobiologia 563: 385-406.

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