World Resource Institute

Asia

Asia (General)

Websites

IOC Sub-Commission for the Western Pacific (WESTPAC)
WESTPAC aims to develop, co-ordinate and implement regional marine scientific research programmes, ocean observations and services, data and information management and capacity building. WESTPAC website provides background information on the organization, publications, activities/events, etc.

North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES)
PICES is an organization composed by 5 countries striving to promote and coordinate marine research in the North Pacific and adjacent seas while enhancing current scientific knowledge about the ocean environment, living resources and their ecosystems, and anthropogenic impacts. The websites provides access to general information on the organization and research projects in addition to publications. A database comprising international marine ecosystem metadata (PICES Metadata Federation) is currently in production and access will eventually be provided therein.

Water Environment Partnership Asia (WEPA)
WEPA, in cooperation with 11 countries in East Asia, aims to promote good governance in water environment management by providing necessary, relevant information and knowledge, through a series of databases. Information collected through WEPA activities is shared by the WEPA Database, which consists of 4 individual databases, namely Policies, Technologies, NGOs’ and CBOs’ activities and Sources of water-related information.

Publications

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 36 – East China Sea
Qu, j., Xu, Z., Wang, L., Shen, X., Zhang, J. and Cai, Y. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2005.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 31 – Oyashio Current
Alekseev, A.V., Khrapchenkov, F.F., Baklanov, P.J., Blinox, Y.G., Kachur, A.N., Medvedeva, I.A., Minakir, P.A. and Titova, G.D. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2006.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 62 –Pacific Islands
South, G.R., Skelton, P., Veitayaki, j., Resture, A., Carpenter, C., Pratt, C. and Lawedrau, A. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2004.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 1a – Russian Artic
Tsyban, A.V., Titova, G.D., Shchuka, S.A., Ranenko, V.V. and Izrael, Y.A. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2005.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 30 – Sea of Okhotsk
Alekseev, A.V., Baklanov, P.J., Arzamastsev, I.S., Blinov, Y.G., Fedoroyskii, A.S., Kachur, A.N., Khrapchenkov, F.F., Medvedva, I.A., Minakir, P.A., Titova, G.D., Vlasov, A.V., Voronov, B.A. and Ishitobi, H. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2006.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 54 – South China Sea
Wilkinsion, C., DeVantier, L., Talaue-McManus, L., Lawrence, D. and Souter, D. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2005.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 34 – Yellow Sea
Teng, S.K., Yu, H., Tang, y., Tong, L., Choi, C.L., Kang, D., Liu, H., Chun, Y., Juliano, R.O., Rautalahti-Miettinen, E. and Daler, D. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2005.

Land-Sourced Pollution with an Emphasis on Domestic Sewage: Lessons from the Caribbean and Implications for Coastal Development on Indian Ocean and Pacific Coral Reefs
DeGeorges, A., Goreau, T.J. and B, Reilly. Sustainability 2: 2919-2949, 2010.

Occurrences of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) Associated with Ocean Environments in the South China Sea
Wang, s., Tang, D., He, F., Fukuyo, Y. and R.V. Avanza. Hydrobiologia 596: 79-93. 2008
This paper analyses HABs events in the South China Sea from 1980 to 2003. The results indicate that HABs range have increased while their frequency is considered to be varied. Areas where HABs occurrence is frequent include the Pearl River Estuary (China), Manila Bay (the Philippines), Masinloc Bay (the Philippines), and the western coast of Sabah (Malaysia). A combination of climatic conditions, nutrients inputs from river discharges and as derivates of aquaculture practices are considered to be drivers in the occurrence of HABs.

Report on a Regional Study and Workshop on the Environmental Assessment and Management of Aquaculture Development (Asia)
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific , April 1995.

[Top]


China

Websites

China Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs—Water Pollution Map
This site seeks to compile and display water quality and other environmental data from China.

Publications

A 150-year record of recent changes in human activity and eutrophication of Lake Wushan from the middle reach of the Yangze River, China
Enlou ZHANG, Enfeng LIU, Richard JONES, Peter LANGDON, Xiangdong YANG and Ji SHEN. J. Limnol., 69(2): 235-241, 2010

De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green algae Ulva pertusa
Jianguo, L., Zengfu, W. and Wei, L. Chinese Journal of Oceanography and Limnology 28(2): 201-208.

Environmental changes reflected by sedimentary geochemistry in recent hundred years of Jiaozhou Bay, North China
Dai, J., Song, J., Li, X., Yuan, h., Li, N. and Zheng, G. Environmental Pollution 145(3): 656-667, 2007.

Eutrophication in the Yangtze River Estuary and Mitigation of Harmful Algal Blooms
Yu, Z., X. Song, X. Cao, Z. Shen, and B. Yin. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
This study presents the results of seasonal water cruises in the Yangtze River Estuary.

Harmful Algal Bloom Causative Collected from Hong Kong Waters
Lu, S. and I.J. Hodgkiss. Hydrobiologia 512(1-3): 231-238, 2004.
This study assesses the different types of algae and various algal bloom events that occur in the coastal waters of Hong Kong.

Hypoxia in the East China Sea: One of the largest coastal low-oxygen areas in the world
Chen, C., Gong, G. and Shiah, F. Marine Environmental Research 64(4): 399-408, 2007.

Land-Based Pollution in the South China Sea
UNEP/GEF. 2007. Thailand: United Nations Environment Programme.
This report presents research from a UNEP working group that addresses land-based pollution in the South China Sea.

Nutrient Budgets for Large Chinese Estuaries
Liu, S.M., G.-H. Hong, J. Zhang, X.W. Ye, and X.L. Jiang. Biogeosciences 6:2245-2263, 2009.
This paper attempts to provide a holistic view of the flux of nutrients from river to sea, via estuaries.

Ocean pollution from Land-based Sources: East China Sea, China
Daoji, L. and D. Daler. Ambio 33(1-2): 107-113, 2004.
This paper discusses the evolution of environmental problems and impacts on the East China Sea and assesses the sea's current condition.

Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis for the South China Sea EAS/RCU Technical Report Series No. 14
Talaue-McManus, L. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Bangkok, 2000.

Trophic Assessment in Chinese Coastal Systems - Review of Methods and Application to the Changjiang (Yangtze) Estuary and Jiaozhou Bay
Xiao, y., Ferreira, J.G., Bricker, S.B., Nunes, J.P., Zhu, M. and Zhang, X. Estuaries and Coast 30(6): 901-918, 2007.

Watersheds Nutrient Loss and Eutrophication of the Marine Recipients: A Case Study of the Jiaozhou Bay, China
Zhang, J. Water Air Soil Pollution: Focus 7: 583-592, 2007.

[Top]


Indian Subcontinent

A Comparative Study of Physico-Chemical Investigation along Parangipettai and Cuddalore Coast
Sundaramanickam, A., Sivakumar, T., Kumaran, R., Ammaiappan, v. and R, Velappan. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 1(1): 1-10, 2008.

Anthropogenic impact on water quality of Chilika lagoon RAMSAR site: a statistical approach
Panigrahi, S., Acharya, B.C., Panigrahy, R.C., Nayak, B.K., Banarjee, K. and S.K. Sarkar. Wetlands Ecology and Management 15: 113-126, 2007.

Chemical Pollution Profile of Rehri Creek Area, Karachi (Sindh)
Shahzad, A., Khan, M.A., Shaukat, S.S. and W, Ahmed. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan 31(4): 592-600, 2009.

Database on Coastal Information of Tamilnadu
Ramesh, R., P, Nammalwar. and V.S, Fowri. Institute for Ocean Management Anna University Chennai, 600 025, 2008.

Environmental Impact of Prawn Farming on Dutch Canal: The Main Water Source for the Prawn Culture Industry in Sri Lanka
Corea, A.S.L.E., Jayasinghe, J.M.P.K., Ekaratne, U.K., Johnstone, R. Ambio 24(7/8): 423-427, 1995.

Eutrophication induced changes in benthic community structure of a flow-restricted tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters), India
Martin, G.D., Nisha, P.A., Balachandran, K.K., Madhu, N.V., Nair, M., Shaiju, P., Joseph, T., Srinivas, K. and G.V.M. Gupta. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 2010.

Eutrophication status of marine environment of Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports
Sawant, S.S., Prabhudessai, L. and Venkat, K. Environmental Monitoring Assessment 127(1-3): 283-291, 2007.

Evaluating Gains from De-Eutrophication of the Dutch Canal in Sri Lanka: A Cost Benefit Analysis
Rohitha, W.R. South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE) Working Paper No. 29-08, 2008.

On the Occurrence of Green Noctiluca Scintillans Blooms in Coastal Waters of Pakistan, North Arabian Sea
Chaghtai, F. and S.M, Saifullah. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 38(3): 893-898, 2006.

Perspectives of the coastal and marine fisheries of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh
Islam, S. Ocean & Coastal Management 46: 763-796, 2003. The article gives an account on Bangladesh coastal and marine resources. The ecology and productivity of the coastal environment is described as well as the status of the aquaculture/fisheries industry and its effects on water quality.

Self-Pollution: A Major Threat to the Prawn Farming Industry in Sri Lanka
Corea, A., Johnstone, R., Jayasinghe, J., Ekaratne, S. and K, Jayawardene. Ambio 27(8): 662-668, 1998.

The Economic Value of the Environment: Cases from South Asia - Economic Valuation of the Mangrove Ecosystem along the Karachi Coastal Areas
Khalil, S. Applied Research Institute, Karachi. The World Conservation Union (IUCN), 1999.

[Top]


Japan

Websites

Japan Ministry of the Environment: Water
The English language version of Japan's Ministry of Environment water resources page. The website includes links to English-language version of selected reports.

Publications

Eutrophication and Occurrences of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan
Imai, I., M. Yamaguchi, and Y. Hori. Plankton & Benthos Research 1(2): 71-84, 2006.
The Seto Inland Sea is the largest enclosed coastal sea in Japan and is also a major fishing ground including aquacultures of fish, bivalves, and seaweed. The incidents of red tides dramatically increased in frequency and scale in the Seto Inland Sea along with serious eutrophication in the 1960s and 1970s. The maximum number of incidents in a year was 299, recorded in 1976, but the incidents have since shown a clear decreasing trend, reaching about 100 per year in the late 1980s by virtue of regulation by law, and this level has been maintained thereafter with the level of nutrients supporting red tide occurrences.

Oxygen-deficient Waters Along the Japanese Coast and their Effects upon the Estuarine Ecosystem
Suzuki, T. Journal of Environmental Quality (30): 291-302, 2001.
This paper presents multiple aspects of Mikawa Bay – hydraulic mechanisms, fisheries status, historical progress, and nutrient budgets between sediment and water. Recently, intense reclamation of shallows (including tidal flats) and the large reduction in river flow due to farmland irrigation drastically accelerated dissolved oxygen deficiency in the area.

Quality of Environment in Japan
Japan Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo, 2003.
The English version of Japan's Annual Report on the Environment.

Eutrophication and its Cause/Consequences: a Case of the Seto Inland Sea Osamu Matsuda. Chapter 3.2 In "Asia-Pacific Coasts and their Managment: States of the Environment" Nobuo Mamura, ed. 2008. Springer: the Netherlands.

[Top]


South Korea

Websites

Korea Ministry of the Environment
The official website for the Republic of Korea's Ministry of the Environment.

Publications

Eutrophication of the Major Reservoirs in Korea
Kyu-song, C., K. Bom-chul, H. Woo-myung, and K. Dong-sup. Hydrobiologia (7): 21-29, 1991.
The trophic state of several major reservoirs in Korea are reviewed. Most of large reservoirs are mesotrophic to eutrophic, suffering from blue-green algal blooms. Recently, many reservoirs are being eutrophied at a high rate mainly due to the increase of excretion by livestock in the watersheds and netcage-type fish farms within the lake basins.

Dinoflagellate Cysts in Coastal Sediments as Indicators of Eutrophication: A Case of Gwangyang Bay, South Sea of Korea
Kim, S.Y., Moon, C.H., Cho, H.J. and D.I. Lim. Estuaries and Coasts 32(6): 1225-1233, 2009.

Korean Environmental Yearbook
These yearbooks include statistics for a wide range of environmental issues, including coastal water quality.

Large Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Benthic Eutrophication in Bangdu Bay on Volcanic Jeju Island, Korea
Hwang, D.W., Lee, Y.W. and G, Kim. Limnology and Oceanography 50(5): 1393-1403, 2005.
The role of submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) in the contribution of “new nutrients” into Bangdu Bay is explored in this technical paper. The methodology implemented includes the use of chemical tracers and analysis of nutrients within the bay. The results indicate that SGDs are the most important source of nutrient inputs and potentially leading to benthic eutrophication within the bay.

Model development for nutrient loading from paddy rice fields
Chung, S.O., Kim, H.S. and J.S, Kim. Agricultural Water Management 62: 1-17, 2003.

Nitrogen Budgets for the Republic of Korea and the Yellow Sea Region
Bashkin, V.N., S.U. Park, M.S. Choi, and C.B. Lee. Biogeochemistry (57/58): 387-403, 2002.
This paper presents the biogeochemical budgets of nitrogen for the South Korea peninsula (Republic of Korea) and for the Yellow Sea region. Nitrogen is quantified for the following sources: atmospheric deposition, fertilizers, biological fixation, and imports of food, feed, and products. The study also looks at annual accumulation in the Yellow Sea and inputs from South Korea.

The role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in nutrient budgets of Gamak Bay, a shellfish farming bay, in Korea
Hwang, D.W., Kim, G., Lee, W.C. and Oh, H.T. Journal of Sea Research 64: 224-230, 2010.

Three-dimensional hydrodynamic-eutrophication model (HEM-3D):application to Kwang-Yang Bay, Korea
Park, K., Jung, H.S., Kim, H.S. and S.M. Ahn. Marine Environmental Research 60: 171-193, 2005.
Numerical water quality models are a common tool used to study and manage water quality conditions in aquatic systems. In this technical paper, the HEM-3D model is presented and described. Additionally, the methodology followed for its application and the results obtained in Kwang-Yang Bay are discussed.

[Top]


Southeast Asia

Websites

Mekong River Commission (MCR) for Sustainable Development
The MCR was established in 1995 by an agreement between the government of Cambodia, LAO PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. The commission strives to ensure the sustainable and equitable use of the Mekong River System. MCR’s website provides access to a range of resources and information on topics ranging from sustainable hydropower to climate change and adaptation. A number of publications including water quality reports are available for download. Other information such as the Delta’s flood forecasting is also accessible.

Publications

An assessment of water quality in the Lower Mekong Basin - MRC Technical Paper No. 19
Mekong River Commission (MCR), 70 pp, Vientiane, 2008.

Are Pyrodinium Blooms in the Southeast Asian Region Recurring and Spreading? A View at the End of the Millennium
Avanza, R.V. and Taylor, M. Ambio 30(6): 356-364, 2001.

Bioerosion of Live Massive Corals and Branching Coral Rubble on Indonesian Coral Reefs
Holmes, K.E., Edinger, E.N., Hariyadi, G., Limmon, V. and M.j. Risk. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(7): 606-617, 2000.

Biogeochemical budgets and processes in Bandon Bay, Suratthani, Thailand
Wattayakorn, g., Prapong, P. and D, Noichareon. Journal of Sea Research 46(2): 133-142, 2001.

“Carbon Flux Through Bacteria in a Eutrophic Tropical Environment: Port Klang Waters.”
Lee, C.W. and C.W. Bong. In: The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours, E. Wolanski (ed). 329-345, 2006.

Eutrophication and its Cause/Consequences: a Case of the Philippines
Maria Lourdes San Diego-McGlone, Gil Jacinto, Daisy Padayao, Imelda Velaquez. Chapter 3.3 in "Asia-Pacific Coasts and their Managment: States of the Environment" Nobuo Mamura, ed. 2008. Springer: the Netherlands.

[image bloom.jpg align=right width=220 height=220 Fig 1. Algal bloom resulting from eutrophication in the coast of Ca Ba Nay, Vietnam. The South China Sea borders nine countries with a population (c. 2003) of 1.716 billion of whom around 600 million live in coastal catchments. Sewage and domestic wastes are considered the major pollutants in the region.

Image Credit: UNEP 2007]

First occurrence of Cochlodinium blooms in Sabah, Malaysia
Anton, A., Teoh, P.L., Mohd-Shaleg, S.R. and N, Mohammad-Noor. Harmful Algae 7: 331-336, 2008.

Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 57 – Indonesian Seas
Vantier, L., Wilkinson, C., Lawrence, D. and D, Souter (eds). United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2005.

Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 55 – Mekong River
Snidvongs, A. and S,K, Teng. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2006.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 62 –Pacific Islands
South, G.R., Skelton, P., Veitayaki, j., Resture, A., Carpenter, C., Pratt, C. and Lawedrau, A. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2004.

Global International Water Assessment (GIWA), Regional Assessment 56 – Sulu-Celebes (Sulawesi) Sea
DeVantier, L., Souter, D., South, R., Skelton, P. and Lawrence, D. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2005.

In turbulent seas: the status of Philippine marine fisheries
Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DA-BFAR). Coastal Resource Management Project, Cebu City, Philippines, 2004.

Occurrences of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) Associated with Ocean Environments in the South China Sea
Wang, s., Tang, D., He, F., Fukuyo, Y. and R.V. Avanza. Hydrobiologia 596: 79-93.
This paper analyses HABs events in the South China Sea from 1980 to 2003, 2008. The results indicate that HABs range have increased while their frequency is considered to be varied. Areas where HABs occurrence is frequent include the Pearl River Estuary (China), Manila Bay (the Philippines), Masinloc Bay (the Philippines), and the western coast of Sabah (Malaysia). A combination of meteorological conditions, nutrients inputs in river discharges and as derivates of aquaculture practices are considered to be primary drivers in the occurrence of HABs.

Pollution Study in Manila Bay: Eutrophication and Its Impact on Plankton Community
Kwang-Hyeon CHANG, Atsuko AMANO1, Todd W. MILLER, Tomohiko ISOBE, Rommel MANEJA, Fernando P. SIRINGAN, Hiroyuki IMAI, and Shin-ichi NAKANO. Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry — Environmental Research in Asia. pp. 261–267. TERRAPUB 2009.

Regimes of human and climate impacts on coastal changes in Vietnam
Thanh, T.D., Saito, Y., Huy, D.V., Nguyen, V.L., TA, T.K. and M, Tateishi. Regional Environmental Change 4: 49-62, 2003.

Shrimp and Mollusc Culture at the Bandon Bay in Thailand: A Situation Analysis
Kaewern, M. and A, Yakupitiyage. Asian Fisheries Science 21: 35-54, 2008.
This paper integrates socio-economical and ecological surveys to explore different aspects of the aquaculture industry and its effect on the coastal environment in Bandon Bay. The results presented include parameters reflecting the water quality of the system in addition to economical figures associated with the exploitation of marine resources. A series of viable management options are also suggested for the sustainable development of the bay.

Sustainable management of shellfish resources in Bandon Bay, Gulf of Thailand
Jarernpornnipat, A., Pedersen, O., Jensen, K.R., Boromthanarat , S., Vongvisessomjai, S. and P, Choncheanchob. Journal of Coastal Conservation 9: 135-146, 2004.

Taxonomic and ecological profile of ‘green tide’ species of Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in central Philippines
Largo, D.B., Sembrano, J., Hiraoka, M. and M, Ohno. Hydrobiologia 512: 246-253, 2004.

The community composition and production of phytoplankton in fish pens of Cape Bolinao, Pangasinan: a field study
Yap, L.G., Avanza, R.V. and L. Talaue-McManus. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49: 819-832, 2004.
In this study, a range of physico-chemical and biological parameters are analyzed in order to understand the nature of the phytoplanktonic community of fish pens in the Lingayen Gulf (Philippines). The conclusions of the analysis indicate a positive correlation between nutrient enriched fish pens and enhanced biomass of particular phytoplankton species. This trend was observed within fish pens and surrounding water. Other factors contributing to eutrophic conditions in fish pens include seasonal climatic conditions and inappropriate operational practices of the aquaculture industry.

The Conservation of Key Coastal Wetland Sites in the Red River Delta
Pedersen, A. and N, Huy Thang. BirdLife International Vietnam Programme, Hanoi, 1996.

The relationship of climatic and hydrological parameters to surface water quality in the lower Mekong River
Prathumratana, L., Sthiannopkao, S., Kim, K.W. Environment International 34: 860-866, 2008.

Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis for the South China Sea EAS/RCU Technical Report Series No. 14
Talaue-McManus, L. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Bangkok, 2000.

Use of agrochemicals in Thailand and its consequences for the environment
Tirado, R., Englande, A.J., Promakasikorn, L. and V, Novotny. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note, February, 2008.

[Top]