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Not Featured GeographyWRI Office

WRI established its U.S. office in 1982. We work to improve water quality, increase awareness of local climate change impacts, and identify cost-effective emissions-reduction opportunities in the United States. Learn more about our Eutrophication and Hypoxia, Water Quality Trading, U.S. Local Climate Impacts Initiative, and U.S. Climate Action projects.

Bottom Line on Energy Savings Certificates

Energy savings certificates (ESCs) are used in some states as a mechanism through which third parties, such as commercial and industrial companies, can help utilities comply with energy efficiency targets. This issue explains ESCs and discusses their role in compliance markets.

Presiding with Principle

Restoring Good Governance in the U.S. Executive Branch, and Why Voters Should Care

This paper describes how social and environmental objectives have been undermined when past U.S. administrations have failed to respect the basic principles of participatory democracy and informed decision-making.

Federalism in the Greenhouse

Defining a Role for States in a Federal Cap-and-Trade Program

This policy brief presents the competing arguments for state-led and federal-led climate legislation, and argues for a third—“hybrid”—approach that maximizes the strengths of each level of government.

Athena Ballesteros

Director, Finance Center

Maria Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros is a Project Manager at WRI’s Institutions and Governance program.

Bottom Line on International Trade

By encouraging clean technology deployment and imposing new costs on commonly traded commodities, climate policy would have significant impacts on international trade flows. This document answers basic questions about climate policy and its implications for the international trade of goods.

Bottom Line on State and Federal Policy Roles

As different statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policies continue to emerge in the United States, more and more businesses are calling on the federal government to enact a single, uniform policy. The prospect of complementary policies between different levels of government—as well as the...

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