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WRI Summary of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act (Waxman-Markey)

This summary provides a concise overview of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security (ACES) Act, as passed by the House of Representatives on June 26, 2009 (This summary applies only to H.R. 2454 as passed and not subsequent iterations).

Download the Complete Summary, here. (includes footnotes and references)


The ACES is a comprehensive energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction bill substantially revised since the original discussion draft released on March 31, 2009.

The ACES consists of five titles:

  • Title I, Clean Energy
  • Title II, Energy Efficiency
  • Title III, Reducing Global Warming Pollution
  • Title IV, Transitioning to a Clean Energy Economy
  • Title V, Agriculture and Forestry Related Offsets

This summary roughly follows the structure of the bill; it deviates from this structure where we believe it facilitates understanding by grouping related components together. For a detailed review of allowance value distribution under ACES please see Appendix A, included in the Complete Summary. For more information on specific components of the ACES, please refer to the actual legislative language as referenced by section and page number in this document.

Download the Complete Summary, here.

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