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Blog Posts: japan

  • 米中気候協定を読み解く

    米国人が使う「now you’re talking(そうだね)」というあいづちの裏には、「ようやく本気を出したね」という意味が込められている。気候変動対策に本腰を入れるとは、言葉による約束を実行に移すということであり、それも思い切った策でなければならない。

  • オバマ大統領の2025年GHG削減目標—野心的しかし達成は可能

    11月12日、米国と中国は地球温暖化対策で重大発表を行い、両国の新たな目標を明らかにした。オバマ大統領は、米国の温室効果ガス(GHG)排出量を2025年までに2005年水準比26%~28%削減する方針を表明。一方、習近平国家主席は、中国のCO2排出量を2030年前後をピークとして削減し、2030年までに非化石燃料の比率を20%前後まで引き上げる目標を掲げた。気候変動に関する米中間の新たな連携は、歴史的な転換点となる可能性がある

  • 米国と中国、数値を盛り込んだ気候目標で合意

    バラク・オバマ大統領と習近平国家主席による気候問題に関する歴史的発表を受け、米中両国は欧州連合と歩調をそろえて温室効果ガス(GHG)の新排出制限にコミットすることとなった。世界の他の国々の合計とほぼ同量のGHGを毎年排出しているこの3つの経済大国によるコミットメントは、重要な意味を持つ。世界がその炭素収支の範囲内に踏みとどまる可能性の存在を示唆するからである。

  • 米国が気候問題で合意、他国の協調に期待

    米国は、温室効果ガス排出結果全般についてコミットしたものの、その達成に向けた具体的道筋は約束しなかった。だが、この提案により、大気浄化法やエネルギー政策法の定める権限を活用するなど、政権が目標達成のために使用する法規制が明確になったことは間違いない。こうした情報を盛り込むことで、提案されたコミットメントの透明性が増し、米国の目標が達成可能で永続性があるという重要なシグナルを国際社会に発する効果が期待される。

  • Post-Fukushima Climate Action: How Japan Can Achieve Greater Emissions Reductions

    After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Japan halted all existing nuclear operations and significantly scaled back its 2020 emissions-reduction target. As Japan revises its energy policy over the next few years, officials will decide the future of the country’s energy mix—and its climate action.

    New research reveals that Japan can likely go beyond its emissions-reduction target with existing initiatives, but needs to pursue more ambitious action in the long-term to truly overcome the climate change challenge.

  • Fast-Start Finance: Where Do We Stand at the End of 2012?

    This piece was co-authored with Smita Nakhooda of the Overseas Development Institute, with inputs from Noriko Shimizu (IGES) and Sven Harmeling (Germanwatch).

    Developed countries self-report that they have delivered more than $33 billion in fast-start climate finance between 2010 and 2012, exceeding the pledges they made at COP 15 in Copenhagen in 2009. But how much of this finance is new and additional? Developing countries and other observers have raised questions about the nature of this support, as well as where and how it is spent. Independent scrutiny of country contributions can shed light on the extent to which fast-start finance (FSF) has truly served as a mechanism to scale-up climate finance. Our organizations have analyzed the FSF contributions of the United Kingdom, United States, and Japan, and analysis of Germany’s effort is forthcoming.

    Our analysis revealed four key insights into the FSF experience:

    1) Developed Countries Have Ramped Up Climate Support

    The FSF period has been a difficult one: Developed countries pledged their climate finance support at the advent of unprecedented economic difficulty brought on by the 2008 financial crisis. Nonetheless, developed countries have sustained support for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing countries, despite fiscal austerity measures that have substantially cut back public spending. Indeed, all of the countries we reviewed appear to have significantly increased their international climate spending since 2010.

    In many cases, data limitations impede a direct or accurate comparison of fast-start spending to related expenditures before 2010. But the UK appears to have increased its climate finance four-fold relative to environment-related spending before the FSF period. Germany has nearly doubled climate-related finance. Japan previously mobilized $2 billion per year in climate finance through the Cool Earth Partnership; under FSF, it reports average spending of more than $5 billion per year. Finally, through its Global Climate Change Initiative, the United States has increased core climate funding from $316 million in FY09 to an average of $886 million per year in FY10 to FY12.

  • Coming Up: Assessments of UK and US Fast-Start Finance

    Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed countries have pledged to provide “fast-start” finance approaching USD 30 billion for the period 2010-2012. Now, in the final year of the fast-start period, these countries are under pressure to demonstrate that they are meeting this pledge. But divergent viewpoints on what constitutes fast-start finance – coupled with unharmonized approaches to delivering and reporting on it – complicate such an assessment.

    Starting in May 2012, the Open Climate Network (OCN) will release a series of reports that aims to shed light on these discussions by clarifying how developed countries are defining, delivering, and reporting their fast-start finance.

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